AQUACENTRUM / Activated water ionizers / Presentation about Hydrogen Water | Tyler Le Baron in Munich with Karl Heinz Asenbaum

Presentation about Hydrogen Water | Tyler Le Baron in Munich with Karl Heinz Asenbaum

Interview: Tyler Le Baron is interviewed by Karl Heinz Asenbaum in Munich

Molecular Hydrogen Benefits, Oxidative Stress and Autophagy – Tyler LeBaron

Maybe the most important presentation in the hydrogen revolution until now. Thank you dear Tyler, thank you dear Karl! You both are champions.
Age

Spoken content of Tyler Le Baron's lecture

Following the spoken subtitles of the presentation:

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Hello Tyler, so good that you could be in
Munich this day! And we have so many

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questions to you!
We already had some correspondence…

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It's from the last year and it's almost a book! And now we
will take the rest and I am so glad

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that you are here and will
answer our questions! (Cut in) And you people

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welcome with Mr. Tyler LeBaron: He is the King!

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Once again welcome to Munich. Tyler LeBaron!
You are the founder, the head and

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the heart of the molecular hydrogen
foundation MHF in the US.

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A worldwide active foundation that has
taken up the cause to spread the quite

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young knowledge of medicinal uses of
hydrogen gas to the world. You are a

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biochemist and yourself still quite
young. Today in May 2017 on the 29th

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you are 29 years old and are most likely
the most booked conference talker on

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this subject. On the Advisory Council of
the MHF are eminent authorities and

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you are practically the head coordinator
of this worldwide research of this

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exploding subject. What do you see as the duty of your foundation?

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– So, yeah, I am the founder of the Molecular Hydrogen
Foundation which is a science-based

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nonprofit organization. And we're really focused on advancing
the research, the awareness and

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the education of hydrogen as a
therapeutic medical gas. So we don't sell

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any products or make recommendations or
endorsements. We just really want to

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focus on advancing this research and
bring in the

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awareness of what hydrogen is. Because
it's still very much in its infancy.

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The hydrogen research really started
in about 2007 when an article was

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published in Nature Medicine that showed
hydrogen could have therapeutic benefits.

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But the research has grown since then
then exponentially. I mean there's but

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there's still only around a thousand
publications or so on molecular hydrogen

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which although one could consider is
quite a bit and it is.

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It is growing exponentially, but in the
field of academia it's still a very

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small amount of research and so on
really need to understand this molecular

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hydrogen more. It's a very fascinating
area so with MHF where we're hoping to

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bring forth that awareness and get
the education out there to people.

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Because one thing we see, and this is long
before it was even known that Hydrogen

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was very therapeutic:
hydrogen is safe.

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We produce it by our intestinal flora and
we're exposed to it all the time.

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It's something very natural. They used it in
deep-sea diving back to the 1940s to prevent

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decompression sickness or the bends,
because hydrogen has such a fast rate of

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diffusivity. It goes out of the body very much
quickly. So it's not going to have that

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toxic build-up, for example, the humans
that have done it at literally millions of times

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times higher concentrations than what we
needed for therapeutic use. They really have

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shown the high safety profile of hydrogen. So
because we see this is safe – and we see that

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in the various studies out there: clinical
studies and animal studies and cells

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studies, tissue studies. Different
animals have been used, not just yours

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rats and mice but pigs and dogs and
monkeys and some different animal models.

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We're starting to see that hydrogen
actually may really have some

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remarkable benefits. But we need
to understand exactly how that works.

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And why? And for the dosage. There's so
much to understand! But because it's safe

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it's certainly something we need
to do more research on.

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And perhaps this could benefit
a lot of people. – With regard to the pedagogic duties of yours

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foundation
maybe we should first put in order for

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some of our audience all the basics
principles of hydrogen so that we do not

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only know what we are talking about but
in front of everyone about what we are

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not talking about! A bit of chaos
surrounds the different forms of

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hydrogen. Most know it as a component of
water H2O. But then quite a few

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definitions are floating around like H. H+. H-.
Hydroxides, protons, hydrogen ions,

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active hydrogen, hydrogen radical,
hydrogen superoxide, oxy-hydrogen gas and

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much more… What is the issue for you
foundation with such interesting

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molecular hydrogen? – one of the main
questions I often get is for what what

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is hydrogen in general: like Water is H2O so isn't that already Hydrogen,
or if you've got

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Hydrogen to the water, well isn't that like
you can have H3O or H2O Plus

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which is the hydronium ion which is acid.
Is it acid water or is it alkaline?

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water? Because pH stands for potential of hydrogen. So more hydrogen
the higher the pH, or you know, all these things.

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or you know all these things. Let me go
through some of these things.

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But first let me explain what we're
talking about with molecular hydrogen.

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It is simply hydrogen gas. That's what people want
to use it for the alternative energy source.

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It's simply two hydrogen atoms
that are combined together to form a

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hydrogen molecule. So it's just 2 (mean Di-) ​​and so on
it`s di-atomic hydrogen.

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Hydrogen gas is not bound to anything
else. It's free, it's available, it's not

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about anything else...
So is medicinally used Hydrogen in Hydrogen water,

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by inhalation, injection or infusion quite
the same thing as

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what I use to tank up a hydrogen car
with fuel cells if I want to drive it?

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Yes, the exact same hydrogen gas
that you are putting into your water,

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whether bubbling in or whatever, that's
the same hydrogen gas that people use

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to put into their car or other things
for a fuel source. It's a great fuel

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source is three times more energy dense
than gasoline by mass. So what we're also

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seeing: it's great for the human body.
So it's a very exciting area.

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It's the molecule of the century if you
will for both of these aspects. But when

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you add a hydrogen gas to the water
you're not hydrogenating the water. Or in

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other words you're not making the
hydrogen bond to water molecules, it

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doesn't do that. It just dissolves into the
water like you add salt to the water you

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get water with salt in it, water with
sodium chloride. The sodium ions don't

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actually covalently bond or something to
the water molecule. It's just a salt

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just dissolves the same with the hydrogen
gas. So you don't form like H4O or H3O

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or these different things, structures of the water. Something that is
simply water that has hydrogen gas in it.

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And once you have a saturated solution of the

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hydrogen gas in the water, you should
drink it quite soon or the gas will simply

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escape out of the water. So there are
different forms of hydrogen and maybe we

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could talk about those briefly. When you
look at the water molecule, many people

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know it looks kind of like Mickey Mouse.
and and the hydrogens that are attached to it.

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But notice: the hydrogens are attached to the oxygen.

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So those hydrogens are not available. I mean
most compounds have hydrogen in them.

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It's like a sugar, for example glucose,
which has the chemical formula c 6.

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6 carbons so c 6 6 carbons and six
oxygens and 12 hydrogens. So glucose has

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12 hydrogens in it. Water has 2
hydrogens in it. But yet those are

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completely different.
Because the hydrogens are bound to

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the glucose molecule or bound to the water
molecule: So you have a totally different

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structure. And remember: the structure of
the molecule always dictates its

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function so we have hydrogen gas as two
hydrogen atoms that are all by

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themselves and the smallest gas. It can
diffuse through cell membranes very

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quickly and it can go everywhere very
quickly. It's the smallest molecule there is.

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That's the molecular hydrogen,
it's not bound to anything else.

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And the other hydrogens some people say hydrogen,
they also refer to the hydrogen ion.

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Meaning like H+, which is a positively charged
hydrogen atom, has no electron,

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It just has simply one proton and this hydrogen ion is actually
what makes the water acidic.

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So if you have an acid. And acid by definition is
something that can donate an H+ ion.

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So if you have a molecule that is an acid.
Then you have the molecule

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and this is the hydrogen ion. It can donate the hydrogen ion into the water
and that will make it acidic

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And because acid and base, that's about the pH scale.

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And pH we can briefly talk about
The p in pH means potential or power but

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this is a mathematical expression. The power of ten,
in this case it's an exponent,

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which is specifically it's a negative logarithm,
which is an inverse exponent,

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So the p in pH really means a negative logarithm and

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the H is the H+ and so really it's a
negative logarithm of the

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H+ concentration. And that's what pH
really means. And so when we hear pH, we're

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talking about the H+ ions. So by having H+
ions in the water, then, the more H+ ions

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we have, there we have the more acidic pH.
A lower pH, because of the negative log of

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a bigger number is going to be smaller. so that's why H+

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is specific to the pH in
making something acidic.

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Tyler, the whole universe is made of mainly
hydrogen. One can speak more of an

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abundance than a scarcity! There is on
enormous amount of it. Why is it silent?

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good for us and why is it useful for us
health if we supply ourselves with hydrogen?

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Even though the universe is
full of hydrogen and hydrogen is the most

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abundant of all the elements that are there
are, the atmosphere is still very low

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about 0.0005 five percent hydrogen. So,
when we inhale additional hydrogen gas

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or maybe take the hydrogen gas and
dissolve it into water and then drink it.

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what we see is: there are still therapeutic
effects from that. And this is a very new one

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area in the biomedical research. It's that
this small amount of additional hydrogen

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gas has some benefits. Some of those
benefits are, for example, reducing

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oxidative stress or reducing
inflammation or helping with the

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constant decline. They have studies on
proximal disease arthritis. All of these

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will have a basis in oxidative stress
and with inflammation. So this is why

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we're now seeing that yes, maybe having
some more hydrogen, I guess molecular

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hydrogen in our body can be beneficial.
But the research is still very much in

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it in its infancy. We need to understand
better which disease models or which

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people hydrogen is gonna be the most
effective for. But the preliminary data

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and some of the clinical studies that
have been done so far is very impressive,

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very remarkable. And we hope that more
research would be done, so we can understand

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the true significance of hydrogen therapy…
Oh well, there is so much hydrogen

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in the universe
yet in our atmosphere on the earth there

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is less than 1% of it. But where does it happen?
this tiny amount of this earthly scarce

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good come from? Hydrogen gas escapes at
high speed into the universe. Where is it?

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reproduced? And what meaning does it
actually have naturally in our habitat?

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It's a very interesting question.
If we look back at the

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beginning of time, there is the earth has more
of a reducing atmosphere.

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The concentration of hydrogen time was a lot
higher and a lot of the hydrogen is

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produced originally, actually some of it was even trapped

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into various rocks and things at the very beginning.
And there's actually some research

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suggesting that for a lot of the
water came from

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as hydrogen gas reacts with oxygen to form water.
But also we have like in the deep sea

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hydrothermal vents in places where
there's reactions taking place with

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basalt catalyzed reactions or just you
know metals, iron, or different metals

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that can donate its electrons that react
with the water and that produces

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hydrogen gas and that hydrogen gas internals
what acted as an energy source for

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the first organisms the archaea, the
bacteria and it could basically use the

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hydrogen gas and energy stores to
extract the electrons and thus was the

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genesis of life. And as time continued
of course the atmosphere changed and

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hydrogen gas is the lightest molecule of
all the gases and has a highest rate of

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diffusivity so it escapes the atmosphere
very easily, very quickly.

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But it's still being constantly generated by
water or by bacteria. And even in ours

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Even in our bodies, for example, we have developed
a simbiotic relationship with bacteria

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on our skin and our intestines and all
over our bodies. But we see the intestines

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microflora can metabolize the
non-digestible carbohydrates and some of

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that bacteria will actually produce
hydrogen gas. So we end up always having

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basal levels of hydrogen gas. In ours
blood and in our breath pretty much all

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the time.
So it's interesting that we've had this

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relationship with hydrogen really from
the very beginning of time.

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Hydrogen is really what was involved in
even the evolution of your prokaryotes

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and to your eukaryotes with the
hydrogenasis, hydrogeous zones and various

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things in the early days we have
that evolution takes place.

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Well, we allow our intestinal bacteria to
produce hydrogen and we constantly

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breathe it out. Why is it healthy to inhale it
or to incorporate it into us by drinking it?

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It's so often people do wonder
why we had to inject more hydrogen if

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we're already getting hydrogen from ours
bacteria in our intestines and it is one

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of the enigmas if you will of the
hydrogen therapy: The bacteria in us

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intestines can produce a substantial
amount of molecular hydrogen, but what we

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see though, in animal studies and human studies is by taking small
amounts more

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of molecular hydrogen either where it's
dissolved in water or simply through

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inhalation with a cannula or a gas mask,
for example, still observe therapeutic

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protective health benefits. There's a
couple of reasons why that probably is.

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One of them is a concentration issue even
although we get some hydrogen gas from the

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bacteria and quite a bit of a amount of
it, we can still get fairly high

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concentrations by inhaling hydrogen gas
when it goes into the blood stream.

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It's circulated through
and we get to that concentration

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reach the minimum effective dose.
(Which we're still not quite sure what it is.

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it could be 20 micro micro molars,

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for example, in at the sole cellular level.

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The other thing, although it's about
maybe an intermitt

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type exposure, what we see a lot in
pharmacology in general, is sometimes you

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can have a signal that is constant
present and you have an attenuation or

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habituation of that signal, if you want
as a desensitization that occurs and

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perhaps that same thing is happening
with molecular hydrogen that, when you

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have a constant exposure, although you
have some benefits that are occurring,

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maybe a continuous scavenging of the
hydroxyl radical because it's present.

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Some of the more important effects, such
as a cell modulating activity of

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hydrogen that gives it more of this
anti-inflammatory effects or aging

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protein phosphorylations or genes
expressions, this seems to require

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more of an intermittent or post type
effect. A tangent if you want. And so on

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by taking an inhalation of hydrogen or a
higher concentration or drinking

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00:18:52,140 –> 00:18:58,830
hydrogen rich water can give you that
intermittent concentration to cause those

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00:18:58,830 –> 00:19:05,280
transient changes. For example, there was
an article was published in 2012

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00:19:05,280 –> 00:19:09,990
with using a Parkinson's disease model
and they showed that a continuous

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00:19:09,990 –> 00:19:17,370
hydrogen exposure by inhaling hydrogen
about 2% 24/7 it had no effect on

200
00:19:17,370 –> 00:19:21,450
Parkinson's disease. Similarly when they gave the non-digestable
carbohydrate lactulose

201
00:19:21,450 –> 00:19:25,860
which is metabolized by the intestinal flora

202
00:19:25,860 –> 00:19:31,110
produce high amounts of hydrogen gas
that also didn't have any effect.

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00:19:31,110 –> 00:19:36,570
But when they gave inhalation of hydrogen
gas intermittently – I think about 15

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00:19:36,570 –> 00:19:41,550
minutes every hour – that did
statistically significant benefits.

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00:19:41,550 –> 00:19:44,650
But interestingly though in this model that

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00:19:44,650 –> 00:19:49,660
was used it was still not near as
effective as simply drinking hydrogen

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00:19:49,660 –> 00:19:56,050
rich water. So what we learn from this
is the intermittent type of exposure is very

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00:19:56,050 –> 00:20:00,250
important. That goes back to what I was
talking about the desensitization or the

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00:20:00,250 –> 00:20:06,070
habituation of this signal that is
important for the cell modulated

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00:20:06,070 –> 00:20:12,790
activity of hydrogen gas which is
similar with all gaseous or signaling

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00:20:12,790 –> 00:20:18,880
molecules in general. The second is:
the around administration may be

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00:20:18,880 –> 00:20:23,440
different because when you age
pharmacokinetics you alter pharmacodynamics.

213
00:20:23,440 –> 00:20:28,060
dynamics. In other words when we're
taking something inhalation versus

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00:20:28,060 –> 00:20:34,330
taking them orally you are getting
the hydrogen differently. When you

215
00:20:34,330 –> 00:20:39,730
drink it you're going to go through the
stomach and into the intestines and

216
00:20:39,730 –> 00:20:44,050
onto the blood. Whereas when you inhale it, it
goes directly to the lungs and then

217
00:20:44,050 –> 00:20:51,490
to the blood stream. Well, there was something going on
article published in Nature World

218
00:20:51,490 –> 00:20:56,380
publishing journal. At Kyushu University Dr. Noda

219
00:20:56,380 –> 00:21:01,690
found that the drinking of hydrogen
could actually enact a neuro protective

220
00:21:01,690 –> 00:21:07,900
gastric ghrelin secretion. And ghrelin is
very protective, has anti-inflammatory

221
00:21:07,900 –> 00:21:14,520
benefits and many others but the
drinking hydrogen rich water could induce that

222
00:21:14,520 –> 00:21:20,890
secretion of ghrelin. And maybe you don't
get as much of that ghrelin levels when

223
00:21:20,890 –> 00:21:24,790
you are inhaling the gas, and so if I did
this different route of administration

224
00:21:24,790 –> 00:21:31,240
and by this intermittent exposure we're
starting to better understand why

225
00:21:31,240 –> 00:21:35,000
different effects of hydrogen in
different diseases. –

226
00:21:35,000 –> 00:21:42,710
I would like to understand more about the solubility of
hydrogen in water. About that which we

227
00:21:43,510 –> 00:21:51,190
can then drink as hydrogen water.
with a salt crystal one can see how water

228
00:21:51,190 –> 00:21:56,679
slowly dissolves it. It is divided into
its two ions: sodium

229
00:21:56,679 –> 00:22:06,029
and chloride. Yet hydrogen gas is not a
salt. It is a non-polar element, so not

230
00:22:06,029 –> 00:22:14,429
soluble as a hydrogen bond like a grain
of salt: This is not a different type of

231
00:22:14,429 –> 00:22:20,619
solubility? Somehow it seems to me that
hydrogen doesn't feel so good in water

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00:22:20,619 –> 00:22:29,390
instead wants to rid itself from it
because basically it is hydrophobic

233
00:22:29,690 –> 00:22:34,480
it's a great a great question that's
number one question that I get is what

234
00:22:34,480 –> 00:22:38,350
about the solubility of hydrogen? It's
not even soluble in water. So how can you have it?

235
00:22:38,350 –> 00:22:41,919
even hydrogen rich water in the
first place? And even if you get any in

236
00:22:41,919 –> 00:22:46,090
there it's just going to be out
immediately, because it's just not

237
00:22:46,090 –> 00:22:52,389
soluble. And solubility is a subjective
term. I mean everything is slightly

238
00:22:52,389 –> 00:22:57,879
soluble in water! Even if you just get
one atom that gets solvated by water or

239
00:22:57,879 –> 00:23:05,409
something, right? But the saturation
of hydrogen at SATP or standard ambient

240
00:23:05,409 –> 00:23:09,970
temperature and pressure are considered
to be about 0.8 millimol or about 1.6 ppm

241
00:23:09,970 –> 00:23:15,190
which is equivalent to one point six
milligrams per liter. So you have one

242
00:23:15,190 –> 00:23:20,889
liter of water and yet you're at 100%
atmospheric conditions of hydrogen gas

243
00:23:20,889 –> 00:23:26,499
at sea level, then you could get about
one point six milligrams of hydrogen in

244
00:23:26,499 –> 00:23:33,460
a liter of water. Now, first off, when you
so now here it's, okay, only

245
00:23:33,460 –> 00:23:40,210
1.6 milligrams of hydrogen in that liter
of water: that's not very much! Can I

246
00:23:40,210 –> 00:23:46,470
take a hundred milligrams of vitamin C?
Well, what we're forgetting here is that

247
00:23:46,470 –> 00:23:53,799
vitamin C weighs a lot more than
hydrogen gas. Vitamin C is about

248
00:23:53,799 –> 00:23:59,169
176 grams per mole. So we have 1 mol. Think of a mole like
it doesn't: Mol is a set

249
00:23:59,169 –> 00:24:08,840
number. So do if you have one mole of
vitamin C molecules: that weighs 176 grams.

250
00:24:08,840 –> 00:24:14,299
If you have one mole of
hydrogen gas molecules, it only weighs two

251
00:24:14,299 –> 00:24:20,690
grams: So the masses are very different!
So actually if you look, if you compare the

252
00:24:20,690 –> 00:24:26,750
mols to mols or molecules to molecules of
hydrogen gas and vitamin C, you would

253
00:24:26,750 –> 00:24:32,929
actually see that there are actually
more molecules of hydrogen in a liter of

254
00:24:32,929 –> 00:24:39,520
water – saturated water with 1.6 ppm
then there are molecules of vitamin C

255
00:24:39,520 –> 00:24:45,289
in by taking 100 milligrams of vitamin C.
There are more molecules of hydrogen. So in

256
00:24:45,289 –> 00:24:49,850
this case it actually is the sufficient
can. But more important than that

257
00:24:49,850 –> 00:24:55,789
the fact that when we do the actual
scientific studies in animals and in

258
00:24:55,789 –> 00:25:02,870
humans, we see that that concentration is
affected. Even more so we see that if we

259
00:25:02,870 –> 00:25:09,919
take one point six milligrams of water
orally of hydrogen then that's going to

260
00:25:09,919 –> 00:25:13,669
be diluted by another forty liters of
water in our human body and then you're

261
00:25:13,669 –> 00:25:17,600
going to be down to a very low
concentration. Say, you know, ten, twenty

262
00:25:17,600 –> 00:25:23,539
micro molar concentration, so we can do a
self-study that uses that same

263
00:25:23,539 –> 00:25:29,899
concentration and we still see an effect!
So the concentration of hydrogen that

264
00:25:29,899 –> 00:25:37,570
gets into water can be enough but we do
have to drink the hydrogen rich water as well

265
00:25:37,570 –> 00:25:43,399
soon as prepared. Because it is a gas. It
doesn't combine with the water. It's not

266
00:25:43,399 –> 00:25:48,679
highly soluble. It is very light. It
wants to go right up to the atmosphere

267
00:25:48,679 –> 00:25:54,620
very quickly. And so if you can consider
it really like carbonated beverages: If

268
00:25:54,620 –> 00:26:00,020
you have carbonated water, for example,
that's CO2 gas that dissolves into the water.

269
00:26:00,020 –> 00:26:04,220
Well, if you leave it out forever, it
eventually it's going to go flat: The CO2

270
00:26:04,220 –> 00:26:07,100
is gonna go out.
well with the hydrogen gas

271
00:26:07,100 –> 00:26:10,549
if you put the hydrogen gas in there,
it will eventually go out. It's not to go out

272
00:26:10,549 –> 00:26:15,830
immediately it's gonna it's going to
take some time. So maybe if you drink it

273
00:26:15,830 –> 00:26:20,700
within half an hour, you're going to
get most of the hydrogen gas,

274
00:26:20,700 –> 00:26:25,050
depending on the surface area and how
much disturbance there is and the

275
00:26:25,050 –> 00:26:28,710
temperature and all these things in the
water if you have like a bottle of soda

276
00:26:28,710 –> 00:26:32,430
just shaking it around it's going
to go flat a lot quicker. But the

277
00:26:32,430 –> 00:26:38,420
half-life of hydrogen is about two hours.
So if you start with say one point six ppm

278
00:26:38,420 –> 00:26:44,460
and two hours you come back and test
it, you'll be closer to about 0 point eight ppm.

279
00:26:44,460 –> 00:26:50,580
So if you drink it within half an hour or so.
– So if that is only

280
00:26:50,580 –> 00:26:57,750
one point six milligrams per liter or
rather one point six ppm how can some

281
00:26:57,750 –> 00:27:03,480
people claim that they can produce
water with a much higher hydrogen content?

282
00:27:03,480 –> 00:27:08,880
Yeah, another question I often ask
get is because we say that one point

283
00:27:08,880 –> 00:27:14,160
six PPM is the saturation of hydrogen
so we can't get any more than that, how

284
00:27:14,160 –> 00:27:18,720
can you possibly have products that have
a higher concentration; two point six ppm,

285
00:27:18,720 –> 00:27:23,910
3ppm, 5ppm. How is this even?
possible? Is it possible? Is this just?

286
00:27:23,910 –> 00:27:28,290
marketing hype? Well, sometimes it is
just marketing hype and they have no

287
00:27:28,290 –> 00:27:32,880
idea what the concentration really is. Theirs
just putting a number out there. But you

288
00:27:32,880 –> 00:27:40,710
can get higher than 1.6 ppm. The 1.6 ppm
is simply the concentration at

289
00:27:40,710 –> 00:27:46,470
equilibrium at SATP standard ambient
temperature and pressure. So if you

290
00:27:46,470 –> 00:27:54,720
simply increase the pressure then you
can go to a higher concentration and so on

291
00:27:54,720 –> 00:27:59,880
if you, and remember when we talk about the
pressure we're talking about partial

292
00:27:59,880 –> 00:28:04,680
pressure of just hydrogen gas not total
pressure. So for example if you're at sea

293
00:28:04,680 –> 00:28:13,470
level and the pressure is 1 atm, well
that's 1 atm of total pressure so you

294
00:28:13,470 –> 00:28:17,520
have a 21% oxygen, 78%
nitrogen and then the rest of these

295
00:28:17,520 –> 00:28:23,460
other gases. So that's a partial
pressure so not a total atmosphere but

296
00:28:23,460 –> 00:28:29,880
just partial pressure so when we have a
hundred percent of just hydrogen gas at 1 atm

297
00:28:29,880 –> 00:28:34,770
then the concentration, if you wait long
enough, will reach an equilibrium of 1

298
00:28:34,770 –> 00:28:42,900
point six ppm. But like I said, if you
pressurize a bottle or do something

299
00:28:42,900 –> 00:28:48,330
to increase that pressure higher,
then the equilibrium now changes and the

300
00:28:48,330 –> 00:28:53,010
new saturation point is maybe 3 ppm or
5 ppm and you can just keep on going up

301
00:28:53,010 –> 00:28:58,350
with more and more pressure and get
higher, higher concentrations and of course

302
00:28:58,350 –> 00:29:03,030
it gets more difficult to go up
higher and higher in pressure and the

303
00:29:03,030 –> 00:29:07,110
higher the concentration you have the
gas will start to dissipate out a lot

304
00:29:07,110 –> 00:29:13,160
quicker and, so you can have you know 3 or
4 or 5 ppm and some of the research

305
00:29:13,160 –> 00:29:18,960
publications actually use that
concentration. – Very good if people, for

306
00:29:18,960 –> 00:29:26,780
example, buy hydrogen water in a special
drinking bag or get yourself an

307
00:29:26,780 –> 00:29:34,260
electrolysis device which can work with
higher pressure: how are they able to

308
00:29:34,260 –> 00:29:42,540
control, if then two or three or even
more ppm are contained in the water? In

309
00:29:42,540 –> 00:29:49,170
videos from suppliers you often see
measuring device of the Japanese company

310
00:29:49,170 –> 00:29:59,250
Trustlex. It is able to show a maximum
of 2 ppm and with that one knows that

311
00:29:59,250 –> 00:30:08,340
this which such a measuring method is not
possible with all types of water. How

312
00:30:08,340 –> 00:30:14,640
do you measure independently of the
water type and how do you measure it

313
00:30:14,640 –> 00:30:25,710
values ​​over 2 ppm or even 5 or 10 ppm?
All that is offered. – For that it is not

314
00:30:25,710 –> 00:30:32,940
best, to use the H2 blue test drops which
can determine the hydrogen content with

315
00:30:32,940 –> 00:30:39,300
titration? What are the differences?
between the electrical and the chemical

316
00:30:39,300 –> 00:30:44,490
measuring methods? — How to measure that
concentration of molecular hydrogen is

317
00:30:44,490 –> 00:30:48,450
very important. We have to do that in the
research so we know what

318
00:30:48,450 –> 00:30:52,680
the dose of hydrogen that the animals or the
humans are getting or whatever

319
00:30:52,680 –> 00:30:57,810
concentration is in the in the cell,
culture media or in the blood. That's it

320
00:30:57,810 –> 00:31:02,970
critical to measure hydrogen. It's also
important for people to know how much

321
00:31:02,970 –> 00:31:07,910
hydrogen they're actually getting when
they buy products from various companies.

322
00:31:07,910 –> 00:31:14,610
But the measurement of hydrogen is quite
difficult because the meters are

323
00:31:14,610 –> 00:31:19,980
different things out there. They
work based upon typically on ions

324
00:31:19,980 –> 00:31:24,660
type things and hydrogen is a gas,
it's small, it's a neutral molecule of

325
00:31:24,660 –> 00:31:29,820
not an ion, so most things that are like an
ion selective electrode. So for example a

326
00:31:29,820 –> 00:31:36,090
pH meter that measures the H+ ion so it's on
ion selective electrode, or there's

327
00:31:36,090 –> 00:31:40,110
nitrate meters or different meters or
full right meters or things that measure

328
00:31:40,110 –> 00:31:46,710
just that ion. But because hydrogen gas
is a neutral molecule, it's not an ion and it's

329
00:31:46,710 –> 00:31:51,540
non-polar it makes it very difficult. Then
you have other things like oxygen.

330
00:31:51,540 –> 00:31:57,110
Well, oxygen is also a neutral molecule, it's
a gas but yet we have meters for that

331
00:31:57,110 –> 00:32:01,760
but that's because oxygen has a
different property with this electron,

332
00:32:01,760 –> 00:32:06,630
the way the electrons are in the
outer shell that makes it paramagnetic

333
00:32:06,630 –> 00:32:11,640
and so we can use that property of
hydrogen, its been becoming paramagnetic to

334
00:32:11,640 –> 00:32:16,530
also measure (hydrogen but, sorry,) also measure
oxygen. But hydrogen is

335
00:32:16,530 –> 00:32:20,100
diamagnetic and it also makes it more
difficult to measure.

336
00:32:20,100 –> 00:32:24,480
So typically to measure hydrogen you
have to use a specific gas

337
00:32:24,480 –> 00:32:28,200
chromatography. Then it gets more
complicated because you have to have a

338
00:32:28,200 –> 00:32:34,140
specific column to measure that molecule
because it's so small and most columns

339
00:32:34,140 –> 00:32:38,370
of the universities of things that have
a gas chromatography, they can't

340
00:32:38,370 –> 00:32:44,180
actually measure for hydrogen either,
so it becomes rather difficult. there are

341
00:32:44,180 –> 00:32:48,840
meters or some meters that claim
you can measure the hydrogen, most of

342
00:32:48,840 –> 00:32:58,110
those meters use a basically of volt
type meter in order to measure or it's not

343
00:32:58,110 –> 00:33:01,680
really measuring, it's really
correlating the potential that

344
00:33:01,680 –> 00:33:06,720
they're given to what the
likelihood of the concentration of

345
00:33:06,720 –> 00:33:12,060
hydrogen is. But it's not selective to
hydrogen and it's also pH sensitive

346
00:33:12,060 –> 00:33:17,610
and it often can be wrong. Because of
the way they're calibrated, there's no

347
00:33:17,610 –> 00:33:22,200
actual standard.
So the real types of meters that we use

348
00:33:22,200 –> 00:33:29,220
in research for example, you actually
have to prepare a sample with a known

349
00:33:29,220 –> 00:33:33,720
amount of concentration so you can make
a standard calibration curve. So you have

350
00:33:33,720 –> 00:33:37,140
you know this amount, you know this
amount, you have that calibration curve

351
00:33:37,140 –> 00:33:42,270
and then you can use that and measure
your unknown and you can compare that to

352
00:33:42,270 –> 00:33:45,860
your calibration curve and then you can
calculate what the concentration is.

353
00:33:45,860 –> 00:33:51,120
That's the standard way, it's a little
more difficult and very expensive for

354
00:33:51,120 –> 00:33:56,990
most people to do. Then another method
that's very easy to use: it's not like that

355
00:33:56,990 –> 00:34:03,300
accurate and it's not as precise in
terms of being able to measure to a very high standard

356
00:34:03,300 –> 00:34:08,070
small concentrations like 0.001 ppm or
something like if you measure in

357
00:34:08,070 –> 00:34:14,100
the blood. But there is the simple redox
titration reagents that use a methylene

358
00:34:14,100 –> 00:34:19,410
blue with the quota platinum as the
catalyst that's able to make that

359
00:34:19,410 –> 00:34:24,210
reaction happens. But it's very
simple, you just pour the water into 6

360
00:34:24,210 –> 00:34:29,700
ml of, pour the hydrogen water, into the
six ml of the beaker

361
00:34:29,700 –> 00:34:35,490
and then you add the reagents in there
and the hydrogen reacts with the reagent

362
00:34:35,490 –> 00:34:41,640
and it converts to methylene blue from
blue to clear. And you can add another

363
00:34:41,640 –> 00:34:44,910
drop. And the more you add the more
hydrogen molecules are used until all

364
00:34:44,910 –> 00:34:50,340
the hydrogen molecules are used up and
the reagent turns blue and it stays blue

365
00:34:50,340 –> 00:34:55,890
in this case, and that is the, sort
of the titration endpoint. And now you

366
00:34:55,890 –> 00:34:59,400
can simply calculate how, what the
concentration is because you know how

367
00:34:59,400 –> 00:35:04,830
many drops you've added to the water. So
that's probably the simplest or easiest

368
00:35:04,830 –> 00:35:08,460
method at this point for people to
measure the concentration of hydrogen

369
00:35:08,460 –> 00:35:13,579
in the various products or to make sure
that what they have is going to be therapeutic.

370
00:35:13,579 –> 00:35:20,849
Good, now we know the most important
things for measuring – the control of

371
00:35:20,849 –> 00:35:28,770
dissolved hydrogen. Next, we should find
out how much of the good stuff we should

372
00:35:28,770 –> 00:35:38,130
drink and also at what concentration? So,
for example, it is better to drink more

373
00:35:38,130 –> 00:35:46,430
frequently during the day a lower
concentration around 0.5 to 1 ppm?

374
00:35:46,430 –> 00:35:53,640
And like that to gradually drink two to
three liters a day? Or would it be better

375
00:35:53,640 –> 00:36:00,390
to just drink one liter a day with a
higher concentration like three ppm?

376
00:36:00,390 –> 00:36:06,660
Another main question, I'm often asked is: Okay
how much hydrogen do I need to get this

377
00:36:06,660 –> 00:36:10,740
therapeutic effect? What is that?
concentration or the dose that I require?

378
00:36:10,740 –> 00:36:17,790
Well, we really don't know for sure what
the minimum concentration is or what's

379
00:36:17,790 –> 00:36:23,520
going to be the most effective. We can
really say what a suitable concentration

380
00:36:23,520 –> 00:36:27,780
is and that simply based on the
animal and specifically the human studies

381
00:36:27,780 –> 00:36:33,150
where we've used a certain concentration
and it has shown therapeutic benefits. And

382
00:36:33,150 –> 00:36:40,230
typically that concentration is around 1
to 1.6 ppm. Even higher even

383
00:36:40,230 –> 00:36:44,880
up to close to 5 ppm but then you have
to consider not just the concentration

384
00:36:44,880 –> 00:36:49,589
but the dose of hydrogen that you're
getting because you could drink 3 liters

385
00:36:49,589 –> 00:36:55,980
of 1 ppm and that would give you 3
milligrams or you could drink one liter

386
00:36:55,980 –> 00:37:01,559
of 3 ppm now it also gives you three
mg but the volume of water is

387
00:37:01,559 –> 00:37:07,020
different. So if you go through the human studies
and you calculate; OK, they drink this

388
00:37:07,020 –> 00:37:11,940
much water the concentration was this,
typically the amount of hydrogen they are

389
00:37:11,940 –> 00:37:19,500
getting in milligrams per day is
about 0.5 milligrams to 3 milligrams and

390
00:37:19,500 –> 00:37:26,730
even higher. That's the common range. So
getting it around the 1, 1.6 milligrams a

391
00:37:26,730 –> 00:37:32,370
day 3 mg a day is
probably where you want to be. We are

392
00:37:32,370 –> 00:37:37,110
seeing that in some cases it's likely
that a higher concentration can be more

393
00:37:37,110 –> 00:37:44,370
effective. In other cases it seems to not
have any additional benefits. But what we

394
00:37:44,370 –> 00:37:50,100
do see it appears so far, at least from
both self studies and animal studies that

395
00:37:50,100 –> 00:37:57,110
a higher concentration is not less
effective than a lower concentration and

396
00:37:57,110 –> 00:38:00,840
that's an important thing because
we already know the hydrogen is

397
00:38:00,840 –> 00:38:08,840
Rather safe we ​​can take the higher
concentrate and feel good that

398
00:38:08,840 –> 00:38:13,890
at least we're getting enough that if
something was to happen we should be

399
00:38:13,890 –> 00:38:18,630
getting enough that it can't happen. So
that's kind of where things are figured out but

400
00:38:18,630 –> 00:38:24,410
because the research is still very much
in his infancy. There are about 40 or so

401
00:38:24,410 –> 00:38:29,010
clinical studies that are currently
registered. 40 have already been done. Just

402
00:38:29,010 –> 00:38:32,580
human studies and things in general
sense this inception of hydrogen. But there's

403
00:38:32,580 –> 00:38:36,390
another 40 or so that are done, some of
those are just with inhalation like in

404
00:38:36,390 –> 00:38:40,050
the hospitals and things, but many of them
that are rich with the drinking of hydrogen

405
00:38:40,050 –> 00:38:45,900
water. But we really needed more human
studies to understand the dosage

406
00:38:45,900 –> 00:38:49,470
protocols and, you know if you're going to
going to get a total of 3 milligrams a

407
00:38:49,470 –> 00:38:54,090
day, you should take that 3 milligrams in
the morning or at night? Should you take

408
00:38:54,090 –> 00:38:58,380
1 milligram in the morning, one in the
evening or one night? Or you know, what about

409
00:38:58,380 –> 00:39:01,170
if you had this disease then maybe we should do
it this way, maybe we should do it this way.

410
00:39:01,170 –> 00:39:07,140
These are viable questions and there is
some suggestive reasonings about that

411
00:39:07,140 –> 00:39:11,430
doing one way or the other may have a
different effect because again you're

412
00:39:11,430 –> 00:39:16,380
changing the pharmacokinetics and you do
that you change the pharmacodynamics if

413
00:39:16,380 –> 00:39:21,060
you will. And the concentration that
actually gets to the cellular level

414
00:39:21,060 –> 00:39:26,730
going to be higher. –
Well that is the field of therapy. There I can look up that

415
00:39:26,730 –> 00:39:31,670
disease and the individual studies and
see which

416
00:39:31,670 –> 00:39:40,640
dose was successful and it is important
to note the following statement: more

417
00:39:40,640 –> 00:39:48,829
hydrogen is not harmful. There are,
according to therapeutic goals, only low

418
00:39:48,829 –> 00:39:56,299
limits but no maximum limit. I don't need
to be ill in order to be enthusiastic

419
00:39:56,299 –> 00:40:03,079
about drinking hydrogen water it also
tastes good! And maybe I just want to

420
00:40:03,079 –> 00:40:08,980
stay healthier for longer… Or drinking
this water should support me in

421
00:40:08,980 –> 00:40:17,869
completing a fitness program. In shorts,
wellness and fitness people, even

422
00:40:17,869 –> 00:40:25,339
competitive athletes always ask me how
much they should drink and what

423
00:40:25,339 –> 00:40:34,119
concentration they need. Does it help?
with muscle development? And the most

424
00:40:34,119 –> 00:40:42,260
pressing question seems to be: can one
lose weight by drinking this hydrogen

425
00:40:42,260 –> 00:40:52,309
water, or actually not? After all, plants
grow faster if you water them with this

426
00:40:52,309 –> 00:40:59,240
water. Even animal breeders discussed the
use it and apply it because there is

427
00:40:59,240 –> 00:41:05,770
proof that pigs or chickens gained weight
faster from it.

428
00:41:05,770 –> 00:41:12,829
Producers advertise the most varied
arguments and advertising statements of

429
00:41:12,829 –> 00:41:19,450
all that. What is correct and what is
marketing drive?

430
00:41:19,450 –> 00:41:25,220
Another question I'm often, I often get
is about the effects of hydrogen water

431
00:41:25,220 –> 00:41:30,500
on weight. We have some people who like them
drink hydrogen water and they're saying:

432
00:41:30,500 –> 00:41:34,400
hey I'm able to gain weight finally. I
have other people that drink hydrogen

433
00:41:34,400 –> 00:41:38,119
water and they say: hey I'm able to lose
weight finally. You have other people who

434
00:41:38,119 –> 00:41:43,369
drink hydrogen water and say: my weight
stays the same. So, which one is it? Is hydrogen

435
00:41:43,369 –> 00:41:45,590
water going to help you
lose weight, is it going to help you gain weight,

436
00:41:45,590 –> 00:41:49,490
is it going to do nothing for you, or
is it's going to do whatever you want it to do?

437
00:41:49,490 –> 00:41:56,390
I don't know. We need to have more
human studies to understand this area

438
00:41:56,390 –> 00:42:02,780
better. Now we can talk about some data
we have to suggest that it can maybe do

439
00:42:02,780 –> 00:42:06,920
one thing or a different thing, for
example there was a study in an ancient

440
00:42:06,920 –> 00:42:11,480
publishing group, the Journal of
Obesity, that showed that hydrogen rich

441
00:42:11,480 –> 00:42:19,490
water can, basically induces fgf21
which is fibroblast growth factor 21

442
00:42:19,490 –> 00:42:25,340
which helps to stimulate energy
metabolism as specifically the

443
00:42:25,340 –> 00:42:30,560
expenditure of fatty acids and different
things. And if you have an increased

444
00:42:30,560 –> 00:42:34,610
metabolism, an increased metabolic rate,
then you're going to burn more calories.

445
00:42:34,610 –> 00:42:41,090
And in fact in the study they also had
one group of the rats, or maybe it was mice,

446
00:42:41,090 –> 00:42:46,040
I think it was mice. And they were on caloric
restriction and the other group was not

447
00:42:46,040 –> 00:42:51,050
but they drank hydrogen rich water and, but they
found that drinking hydrogen water

448
00:42:51,050 –> 00:42:56,030
had a similar effect as at about a 20%
caloric restriction that was in a

449
00:42:56,030 –> 00:43:01,070
high fat diet. Then they also did it
combined where they showed that hydrogen

450
00:43:01,070 –> 00:43:07,490
water and caloric restriction had an even
greater effect. So, this study suggests that

451
00:43:07,490 –> 00:43:11,900
actually yes, hydrogen may be able to
help with the weight loss because it was

452
00:43:11,900 –> 00:43:17,450
able to activate this fgf21, induce this
energy expenditure, improve the

453
00:43:17,450 –> 00:43:22,960
metabolism. And in other studies on
the hydrogen's effect on the mitochondria and

454
00:43:22,960 –> 00:43:26,930
many different aspects were yes, it
starts to make sense. Okay, maybe hydrogen

455
00:43:26,930 –> 00:43:32,510
can't help with this weight loss, this
fat loss. Now on the other side, what

456
00:43:32,510 –> 00:43:37,790
about these people who say they could
finally gain weight? Well, there are some

457
00:43:37,790 –> 00:43:42,140
things to consider in that realm as well.
We talked earlier about how hydrogen

458
00:43:42,140 –> 00:43:46,310
rich water can actually induce
neuroprotective gastric ghrelin

459
00:43:46,310 –> 00:43:51,050
secret. So ghrelin has some
anti-inflammatory properties. It's a

460
00:43:51,050 –> 00:43:55,920
hormones. It's very beneficial and in fact, one
of the reasons why fasting or

461
00:43:55,920 –> 00:44:00,480
intermittent fasting may be good for you because
you have high levels of this ghrelin.

462
00:44:00,480 –> 00:44:04,619
Ghrelin mediates some of the benefits of
fasting and interestingly, like I said, a

463
00:44:04,619 –> 00:44:08,670
hydrogen rich water can also increase
ghrelin levels. Well,

464
00:44:08,670 –> 00:44:14,730
ghrelin, this hormone is actually the
hormones that make you feel hungry and

465
00:44:14,730 –> 00:44:19,710
so for some people maybe they're getting
higher ghrelin levels and so they're eating more

466
00:44:19,710 –> 00:44:23,640
and because of eating more they're
finally able to gain more weight they've

467
00:44:23,640 –> 00:44:29,760
been wanting to. That too
ghrelin, the hormone itself just GHRELIN

468
00:44:29,760 –> 00:44:34,290
It stands for growth hormone
releasing, you know, hormones. That's what it is.

469
00:44:34,290 –> 00:44:39,089
And growth hormone of course is on
anabolic hormone and it helps to build

470
00:44:39,089 –> 00:44:44,309
muscle mass, helps to conserve muscle
mass and different things, lots of

471
00:44:44,309 –> 00:44:53,400
benefits. So maybe hydrogen increases
growth hormone a little bit by the

472
00:44:53,400 –> 00:44:58,049
ghrelin secretion and the growth hormone in turn
could help to build a more

473
00:44:58,049 –> 00:45:03,690
muscle. So for the athletes in different
areas you're able to help

474
00:45:03,690 –> 00:45:08,190
gain weight if you're eating more if that
growth hormone is going on. And then

475
00:45:08,190 –> 00:45:12,089
you have the other group where they
don't really have any effect on them

476
00:45:12,089 –> 00:45:15,720
weight loss and maybe that's because
they didn't need any or maybe they do

477
00:45:15,720 –> 00:45:20,400
want but it's just it's not having that
effect. Everyone is different like that

478
00:45:20,400 –> 00:45:24,869
maybe some people won't have such a
dramatic weight loss effect that's been

479
00:45:24,869 –> 00:45:29,849
reported anecdotally or even at some of
the studies or vice-versa if this other

480
00:45:29,849 –> 00:45:37,200
idea of ​​gaining weight.
Here an interposed question from Mr. Yasin Akgün.

481
00:45:37,200 –> 00:45:44,520
He would like to know how you personally
are holding up with fasting? do you

482
00:45:44,520 –> 00:45:53,910
recommend it and if so when and for how
long should one fast or rather adhere

483
00:45:53,910 –> 00:45:59,010
to meal breaks? —- That's the thing that I'm
asked about is fasting in general

484
00:45:59,010 –> 00:46:03,450
because I've talked about how hydrogen
Rich water can induce gastric ghrelin

485
00:46:03,450 –> 00:46:08,040
secretion and fasting also increases
ghrelin levels and so they're mediated by

486
00:46:08,040 –> 00:46:10,670
this same
second messenger molecule ghrelin, some of

487
00:46:10,670 –> 00:46:16,370
those benefits. So do I almost? Is fasting
good for you? Is it good to do it in

488
00:46:16,370 –> 00:46:24,500
conjunction with hydrogen? Probably, I
almost between meals all the time. Haha. But

489
00:46:24,500 –> 00:46:30,920
fasting is certainly good for you.
We see studies in animals. We do need to

490
00:46:30,920 –> 00:46:34,910
see some more studies in humans to see
the real benefits of the instrument in

491
00:46:34,910 –> 00:46:38,660
fasting and different things that are happening
on. The caloric restriction in general

492
00:46:38,660 –> 00:46:42,710
is a good thing, especially when people are
suffering from obesity or different

493
00:46:42,710 –> 00:46:45,860
things that caloric restriction could be
very beneficial, we see you know,

494
00:46:45,860 –> 00:46:51,410
different changes in many
different hormones and molecules, insulin

495
00:46:51,410 –> 00:46:55,300
and IGF, all different things that can
be beneficial in helping DNA repair.

496
00:46:55,300 –> 00:47:02,990
Can hydrogen potentiate the actions of
fasting? I wouldn't doubt it. We see

497
00:47:02,990 –> 00:47:07,520
hydrogen can induce gastric ghrelin
secretion, it can induce fgf21, it can

498
00:47:07,520 –> 00:47:12,740
stimulate other DNA repair mechanisms
which also does fasting. In fact, hydrogen

499
00:47:12,740 –> 00:47:17,540
seems to activate some of the same
metabolic pathways and transcription

500
00:47:17,540 –> 00:47:21,470
factors and things that
fasting does. So maybe there would be an

501
00:47:21,470 –> 00:47:26,690
additive or synergistic effect or
maybe the fasting effect would be like that

502
00:47:26,690 –> 00:47:30,740
great that you wouldn't see any of the
effects of hydrogen. We just, we just

503
00:47:30,740 –> 00:47:34,790
don't know. We do see one of the studies
that there wasn't at least an additive

504
00:47:34,790 –> 00:47:38,210
potentially synergistic effect with the
caloric restriction and the drinking of

505
00:47:38,210 –> 00:47:43,250
hydrogen rich water so it's probably a
good idea. But then we have the question

506
00:47:43,250 –> 00:47:46,700
OK, so when do we take the hydrogen? So
we take it with the meal, should we take it

507
00:47:46,700 –> 00:47:51,620
it while we're fasting, what's the best
way? Again we really don't know, maybe

508
00:47:51,620 –> 00:47:55,460
it's best to take it with the meal
because on this hand, if you take it with the

509
00:47:55,460 –> 00:48:00,670
meal then it's going to help the body
with the metabolism or something and

510
00:48:00,670 –> 00:48:04,370
it's going to be able to, some of
the hydrogen has been shown to

511
00:48:04,370 –> 00:48:09,920
actually be stored a little bit in the
glycogen in the liver and as the

512
00:48:09,920 –> 00:48:15,200
glycogen is burned and the more the hydrogen
that gets accumulated in there releases

513
00:48:15,200 –> 00:48:18,550
out and so just stays in the body for a
little bit longer and so on

514
00:48:18,550 –> 00:48:23,080
maybe that's a good way. But then, maybe
it's better to take it more on an empty stomach

515
00:48:23,080 –> 00:48:28,150
because that way the body is fresh,
the hydrogen does just go right into it

516
00:48:28,150 –> 00:48:33,910
body and there's no other molecules and
food stuff that's in the body

517
00:48:33,910 –> 00:48:38,890
that's changing things or something and
so maybe it's better to do more than fasting.

518
00:48:38,890 –> 00:48:46,690
So I don't know. But for me, I
guess, I prefer to take my hydrogen in

519
00:48:46,690 –> 00:48:55,000
the morning before I eat or at just
different times then with the meal, just

520
00:48:55,000 –> 00:48:59,970
because I typically don't drink a lot
of water with my meals anyway. But

521
00:48:59,970 –> 00:49:05,050
drinking hydrogen rich water with the meal or
in a fast state we really don't know what's

522
00:49:05,050 –> 00:49:10,240
going to be the most effective if there is
an effective way, but it's possible that

523
00:49:10,240 –> 00:49:15,460
taking in a fasted state do this one
study and some other mechanisms of

524
00:49:15,460 –> 00:49:21,160
action could make it a little bit more effective.
(Q: And when do you eat then best, or when

525
00:49:21,160 –> 00:49:28,090
to fast?) – And then people are also asking
me okay so when should I eat when should

526
00:49:28,090 –> 00:49:37,180
I almost? Well, really there's a lot
of research and it's equivocal. Some

527
00:49:37,180 –> 00:49:40,240
of it is, you know, rather contradictory, you
don't know which one it is and I'm not

528
00:49:40,240 –> 00:49:46,470
an expert in that fasting field even
although I fast, like I said between meals.

529
00:49:46,470 –> 00:49:53,010
But there is an article I remember
reading a bit ago where they found that

530
00:49:53,010 –> 00:49:59,830
they had two groups, both on caloric
restriction and, but one of them ate like

531
00:49:59,830 –> 00:50:03,610
seventy percent of the calories in the
morning maybe 20% at lunch and 10% at

532
00:50:03,610 –> 00:50:07,570
dinner and the other group just the
opposite with 10% in the morning 20% ​​at

533
00:50:07,570 –> 00:50:13,660
lunch and 70% at dinner. And at the end
of the study they found that they both

534
00:50:13,660 –> 00:50:18,910
lost the same amount of weight but
what's interesting about the study was

535
00:50:18,910 –> 00:50:24,430
that the group that had the larger
dinner primarily lost fat whereas the

536
00:50:24,430 –> 00:50:29,700
other group lost a lot more muscle.
And some of the reasoning is, was suggested

537
00:50:29,700 –> 00:50:35,940
from this smaller human study
Was that maybe, when we sleep, that's the time

538
00:50:35,940 –> 00:50:39,810
where the body repairs itself, you have
increase in the growth hormone, we need

539
00:50:39,810 –> 00:50:43,800
to have enzymes, the body has to build them
enzymes which uses the building block of

540
00:50:43,800 –> 00:50:48,930
amino acids to make those proteins, so if
you have no substrates or no food in

541
00:50:48,930 –> 00:50:52,680
your blood or in your stomach or
something then the body's got to get

542
00:50:52,680 –> 00:50:56,820
those amino acids from somewhere so it can
break down the muscles to get those

543
00:50:56,820 –> 00:51:02,070
amino acids to make the proteins and the
enzymes that it needs so it can do its thing

544
00:51:02,070 –> 00:51:08,040
repair mechanisms and things like that, maybe going
to bed in a fasted state is not the

545
00:51:08,040 –> 00:51:14,400
best idea and in the morning you are already
really busy anyway. So even from a

546
00:51:14,400 –> 00:51:19,080
psychological perspective for those who
are trying to lose weight and do a caloric

547
00:51:19,080 –> 00:51:24,840
restriction it makes sense to me that
eating a smaller, even skipping breakfast

548
00:51:24,840 –> 00:51:28,860
could be the easiest thing, because you're already so busy
trying to rush out the door and get to

549
00:51:28,860 –> 00:51:33,420
work and different things. And then lunch
is just small and mild. And then in the

550
00:51:33,420 –> 00:51:39,780
evening you have a good nutritious
healthy meal. And that's also a very social

551
00:51:39,780 –> 00:51:44,310
time where you are with your family, you are
with friends and you can go ahead and

552
00:51:44,310 –> 00:51:48,650
eat the majority of your calories at
that time and then you go to sleep.

553
00:51:48,650 –> 00:51:53,160
And you're fasting if you want until then
next time. But you're not dead, you

554
00:51:53,160 –> 00:51:59,130
have actually substrate for your body to
work off of. Again more research needs

555
00:51:59,130 –> 00:52:03,450
to be done on the ideas of
fasting the intermittent fasting, what's

556
00:52:03,450 –> 00:52:06,630
going to work the best and all these
different things. It is very

557
00:52:06,630 –> 00:52:12,720
interesting area and it does have some
carryover to this hydrogen therapy.

558
00:52:12,720 –> 00:52:18,990
Mr. Akgün has a very interesting follow-up
question which is to be expected of a

559
00:52:18,990 –> 00:52:27,560
water that is saturated with the energy
rich hydrogen gas and as far as I know

560
00:52:27,560 –> 00:52:34,440
it has so far not been answered. The
hydrogen in water, which indicates

561
00:52:34,440 –> 00:52:42,040
excess of electrons, which can be
measured as a negative ORP,

562
00:52:42,040 –> 00:52:49,330
could it be a type of nutrition in the
end and due to that one could renounce

563
00:52:49,330 –> 00:52:58,240
the usual ways of staving off hunger with
the usual calorie rich foods? – So with that

564
00:52:58,240 –> 00:53:02,980
fasting and the hydrogen also people say
hey when I drink hydrogen water, I just

565
00:53:02,980 –> 00:53:08,800
feel so much more energy, I could say, it's
a meal to me. Where I just get this

566
00:53:08,800 –> 00:53:13,690
energy? I don't have to eat anymore.
Ah, potentially maybe that's placebo

567
00:53:13,690 –> 00:53:19,630
effect. We do see hydrogen can help
increase and stimulate the mitochondria

568
00:53:19,630 –> 00:53:23,740
it stimulates energy expenditure so
maybe there's more ATP equivalents or

569
00:53:23,740 –> 00:53:27,280
different energy there that's available
for use and helping to lower

570
00:53:27,280 –> 00:53:32,110
inflammation and oxidative stress and so on
you just feel more alert and more clear.

571
00:53:32,110 –> 00:53:37,240
So those are all possible. But
hydrogen in itself is not considered a

572
00:53:37,240 –> 00:53:41,980
nutrient or it's not actually
metabolized by the body and used as an

573
00:53:41,980 –> 00:53:48,040
energy substrate by, you know, NAD+ to NADH.
Or in the electron transport chain of the

574
00:53:48,040 –> 00:53:53,620
mitochondria actually used to make ATP.
It's not used directly but we do see

575
00:53:53,620 –> 00:53:58,450
that it can actually increase the
mitochondrial membrane potential that

576
00:53:58,450 –> 00:54:03,160
can increase ATP production and
specifically if the mitochondria is

577
00:54:03,160 –> 00:54:07,630
compromised for one reason or the other.
So it is possible that the drinking of

578
00:54:07,630 –> 00:54:14,680
hydrogen water may give you some sort of
satiety, just because it's able to give

579
00:54:14,680 –> 00:54:18,610
some more mental clarity on things. But
it can also be just because you're

580
00:54:18,610 –> 00:54:23,710
drinking water. Water induces gastric
distension, making the stomach feel

581
00:54:23,710 –> 00:54:29,470
full and gastric distension is one of
the most potent signals for satiety.

582
00:54:29,470 –> 00:54:37,690
And so simply drinking more water can help you
not feel hungry as well. — I guess one has

583
00:54:37,690 –> 00:54:42,460
to have patience, until science in the
light of new possibilities, which offers

584
00:54:42,460 –> 00:54:51,960
energy rich hydrogen water, the term nourishment
can maybe one day be

585
00:54:51,960 –> 00:55:00,299
redefined or raised to a
higher level of abstraction. Until now

586
00:55:00,299 –> 00:55:09,490
water counts as a foodstuff. In fact, the
most important. Yet not as a food, because

587
00:55:09,490 –> 00:55:19,289
it is seen as calorie free. The last word
has not been spoken on this matter.

588
00:55:19,289 –> 00:55:25,329
Obviously one wants to assume that
released electrons could mean something

589
00:55:25,329 –> 00:55:33,670
like an energy transfer. On the other
hand does molecular hydrogen only give

590
00:55:33,670 –> 00:55:39,819
off its electrons under adverse conditions
circumstances: when namely it encounters

591
00:55:39,819 –> 00:55:46,809
the very aggressive hydroxyl radical.
This can maybe not be understood or seen

592
00:55:46,809 –> 00:55:56,440
as triggered energy metabolism from food.
Or can it? This difficult question which

593
00:55:56,440 –> 00:56:00,970
delves into the fundamental and
philosophical nourishment definition,

594
00:56:00,970 –> 00:56:10,119
cannot currently be finally answered.
Instead, let's shed some light onto what

595
00:56:10,119 –> 00:56:16,930
we already know about hydrogen water
which we take in by,

596
00:56:16,930 –> 00:56:25,180
for example, drinking. How long does it take?
take until the gas reaches individual

597
00:56:25,180 –> 00:56:36,309
organs and its effect can unfold? —-
Another question I'm often given is what about

598
00:56:36,309 –> 00:56:42,520
the pharmacokinetics of hydrogen. In others
words: when I take my hydrogen water, how

599
00:56:42,520 –> 00:56:46,270
long does it take for the hydrogen to
actually get inside of my body and how

600
00:56:46,270 –> 00:56:51,190
long does it stay there for. Well, what
we've seen in some of the human studies

601
00:56:51,190 –> 00:56:56,559
is: people can drink hydrogen water and
then we see increases in breath hydrogen

602
00:56:56,559 –> 00:56:59,770
because what happens is: you drink the hydrogen
water, it goes into the stomach, it goes into the

603
00:56:59,770 –> 00:57:02,049
intestines,
goes through like the portal veins, the

604
00:57:02,049 –> 00:57:04,510
liver
and then into the venous system of the

605
00:57:04,510 –> 00:57:08,500
blood and directly to the heart and into
the lungs and you exhale most of this

606
00:57:08,500 –> 00:57:13,420
hydrogen gas out. And so you can measure
increases in breath hydrogen, which also

607
00:57:13,420 –> 00:57:16,750
clearly shows that hydrogen does make it
through the intestinal wall and the cell mucosa

608
00:57:16,750 –> 00:57:22,420
into the bloodstream. And
typically depending on the dose of

609
00:57:22,420 –> 00:57:27,220
hydrogen you're getting you reach the
peak level within your five to fifteen

610
00:57:27,220 –> 00:57:32,560
minutes or so. So it goes through quite
quickly and having such a high rate of

611
00:57:32,560 –> 00:57:37,869
diffusivity being so small it's able to
penetrate to the cell membranes and it's

612
00:57:37,869 –> 00:57:43,450
able to, it's very ubiquitous and
pervasive in that. It can go out through

613
00:57:43,450 –> 00:57:48,700
everything quite easily. And probably in
about an hour or so again depending on the dose,

614
00:57:48,700 –> 00:57:52,390
the bigger the can and the more you
drink the longer it's going to last or

615
00:57:52,390 –> 00:57:56,740
the longer it will take to get to that
peak level but within an hour or so,

616
00:57:56,740 –> 00:58:01,180
is typically back down to a basal
level. So if you measured breath, hydrogen in your

617
00:58:01,180 –> 00:58:08,410
breath, you probably have maybe 5 ppm
in the air and then if you drink it

618
00:58:08,410 –> 00:58:13,900
hydrogen water, say 500 milliliters at
1.6 ppm and it jumps up to you know 80

619
00:58:13,900 –> 00:58:20,560
ppm or 115 ppm or something in this
range. Then it goes back down and within

620
00:58:20,560 –> 00:58:26,050
an hour you're back to normal you know 4
or 5 ppm of breath hydrogen in the air.

621
00:58:26,050 –> 00:58:32,800
So that's basically the pharmacokinetics of
the hydrogen from drinking hydrogen rich water.

622
00:58:32,800 –> 00:58:37,510
Then of course there's inhalation and, of course
course, that's very, very rapid. If you

623
00:58:37,510 –> 00:58:43,180
inhale the hydrogen gas it depends
on what percentage. Many of the studies

624
00:58:43,180 –> 00:58:49,210
they use a percentage below 4% because
at a 4.6% that's when it's flammable

625
00:58:49,210 –> 00:58:53,619
and so if there's a spark or there's
some sort of ignition source that can

626
00:58:53,619 –> 00:58:59,140
incite the gas and fire and that would
not so good. So while the studies are taking place

627
00:58:59,140 –> 00:59:03,970
below that time and the hydrogen is
going to just follow the blood flow and

628
00:59:03,970 –> 00:59:08,830
it can go throughout the body quite
quickly and it does reach the muscles and

629
00:59:08,830 –> 00:59:14,200
the brain and different things and
reaches an equilibrium depending on the

630
00:59:14,200 –> 00:59:17,650
concentration that you're continuously inhaling within

631
00:59:17,650 –> 00:59:23,590
maybe half an hour or so. And then
as soon as you stop inhaling,

632
00:59:23,590 –> 00:59:28,270
again within about an hour it typically
goes back down to baseline again

633
00:59:28,270 –> 00:59:33,940
depending on the volume you're inhaling.
There are some studies that actually use

634
00:59:33,940 –> 00:59:43,330
a 66% hydrogen concentration, 33% oxygen.
And those ones, of course, will stay in

635
00:59:43,330 –> 00:59:47,950
the blood a lot longer and then the
question is well which one is better, too

636
00:59:47,950 –> 00:59:53,260
inhale the greater or to inhale the
less. Well again, we don't know we need to

637
00:59:53,260 –> 00:59:57,250
see more human studies in order to
figure out which one's going to be

638
00:59:57,250 –> 01:00:03,450
better. Maybe – we do know
that it is a difference if you inhale

639
01:00:03,450 –> 01:00:11,680
let's say point 1 percent hydrogen gas
for all the time, say for 24 hours, that

640
01:00:11,680 –> 01:00:16,110
may not ever be effective or therapeutic
because it never actually reaches the

641
01:00:16,110 –> 01:00:23,560
concentration at the cellular level high
enough to have this therapeutic protective effect.

642
01:00:23,560 –> 01:00:29,890
So we typically see in animal studies at
least and then extrapolate to the cell

643
01:00:29,890 –> 01:00:34,720
culture that the concentration needs to
be closer to one percent or higher,

644
01:00:34,720 –> 01:00:39,850
you know, typically 2 to 3 percent or so
or a lot of those studies are the big

645
01:00:39,850 –> 01:00:44,680
study in Japan for example as they, the
government recently approved hydrogen

646
01:00:44,680 –> 01:00:49,360
inhalation as a medical procedure for
post cardiac arrest patients, they're

647
01:00:49,360 –> 01:00:52,450
using about 2 to 3 percent hydrogen
concentration so it's below the flammability

648
01:00:52,450 –> 01:00:58,660
level. And the point is that we know
we have to get to a certain cellular

649
01:00:58,660 –> 01:01:03,490
concentration for the hydrogen to be
effective. And then the question is: okay

650
01:01:03,490 –> 01:01:07,540
so now say that you are to that therapeutic
level now does it matter I'm inhaling

651
01:01:07,540 –> 01:01:15,490
the 3% hydrogen or 66% hydrogen?
Well, then we need to consider okay what

652
01:01:15,490 –> 01:01:18,640
diseases are we talking about? Does this
disease have a dose-dependent effect,

653
01:01:18,640 –> 01:01:24,730
does not? And then what is that, what kind
of a tangent or impulse type

654
01:01:24,730 –> 01:01:28,650
intermittent exposure does this
need in order to optimize the effects? We

655
01:01:28,650 –> 01:01:33,569
just don't know at this point where
there's more anecdotal reports of what

656
01:01:33,569 –> 01:01:39,210
we should do more than there are scientific data
and evidence suggesting what we

657
01:01:39,210 –> 01:01:45,720
need to do. So we're still in the
research process of this. So because we

658
01:01:45,720 –> 01:01:49,260
talked about the pharmacokinetics and that
when we drink the hydrogen rich water

659
01:01:49,260 –> 01:01:55,589
that it reaches a peak plasma and breath
level within 5 to 15 minutes and then goes

660
01:01:55,589 –> 01:02:01,079
back to baseline within an hour, then people
say: Oh so maybe I should be drinking

661
01:02:01,079 –> 01:02:06,869
hydrogen rich water every hour so that
we go up and they go down and we go up

662
01:02:06,869 –> 01:02:12,660
and then they go down. Maybe that makes
sense but we don't know and there could

663
01:02:12,660 –> 01:02:17,309
be some other things to consider maybe
it's actually better to let it go up

664
01:02:17,309 –> 01:02:21,720
really high like that and then go back
down and then we wait and give it no

665
01:02:21,720 –> 01:02:27,990
signal. Nothing there for an extended
period of time and then we hit the

666
01:02:27,990 –> 01:02:32,069
cell again with the higher concentration
after the, because you have you

667
01:02:32,069 –> 01:02:37,890
know metabotropic effect that, you know,
the changes in gene expression differ

668
01:02:37,890 –> 01:02:43,260
things, all these take time to change
back to how it was or to make it

669
01:02:43,260 –> 01:02:47,849
changes and so we don't know if it's
best to just drink it on the hour or

670
01:02:47,849 –> 01:02:52,079
maybe just have it once a day or have it
three times a day and then again

671
01:02:52,079 –> 01:02:55,529
like we said should we have it with the
food without the food? How does that all work?

672
01:02:55,529 –> 01:03:00,359
make, we just don't know. What we're
seeing in the animal and human studies

673
01:03:00,359 –> 01:03:05,520
is: the drinking of hydrogen rich water is
effective and it's probably not

674
01:03:05,520 –> 01:03:09,869
necessarily a wrong way to do it but
there probably is a better way to do it

675
01:03:09,869 –> 01:03:16,140
we just don't know what that better way
is at this point. —- Back again to the

676
01:03:16,140 –> 01:03:23,250
intake of hydrogen after drinking. How
much of it enters the bloodstream and

677
01:03:23,250 –> 01:03:30,450
how much floods the body directly as a
gas so that everything is penetrated and

678
01:03:30,450 –> 01:03:36,210
not dependent on transportation through
the blood vessels?

679
01:03:36,210 –> 01:03:41,460
We talked about the pharmacokinetics
of the drinking hydrogen rich water that it goes

680
01:03:41,460 –> 01:03:46,170
to the portal vein, into the systemic
circulation to the venous

681
01:03:46,170 –> 01:03:51,740
blood. How much of that hydrogen in just,
we exhale it out and how much actually

682
01:03:51,740 –> 01:03:58,260
goes throughout the rest of the body?
Well most of it is actually just simple

683
01:03:58,260 –> 01:04:06,119
exhaled out and 95% of it is exhaled
out or even higher than that and so on

684
01:04:06,119 –> 01:04:11,250
question is of how much actually gets to
my tissues, to my muscles, to my

685
01:04:11,250 –> 01:04:15,000
knee, how much of that hydrogen molecule that
actually gets there? Probably a very

686
01:04:15,000 –> 01:04:19,020
small amount and so that suggests that
we have other secondary messengers

687
01:04:19,020 –> 01:04:22,260
systems that are probably work like
ghrelin that we talked about earlier.

688
01:04:22,260 –> 01:04:27,240
…..We also have the counter
multiplier effect in the kidney where

689
01:04:27,240 –> 01:04:32,609
even small amounts of hydrogen but it's
passing through the kidneys so often. So we're,

690
01:04:32,609 –> 01:04:37,050
that's one reason we're seeing benefits
to the kidneys with oxidative stress

691
01:04:37,050 –> 01:04:43,290
and kidney function and the glomerular
filtration rate and different things. So

692
01:04:43,290 –> 01:04:49,710
again we need to see more studies on, you
know what the dosage is and the reasons

693
01:04:49,710 –> 01:04:56,309
why this works better than this
works, or if it even does.

694
01:04:56,309 –> 01:05:04,290
So now we know that we know relatively little
about how the intake of hydrogen in the

695
01:05:04,290 –> 01:05:11,760
body should be dosed. One issue though,
which has been discussed for a long time, even

696
01:05:11,760 –> 01:05:19,400
before the pharmacological effect of
hydrogen gas in water was even known

697
01:05:19,400 –> 01:05:32,819
that the antioxidant effect of water has
a negative redox potential, or ORP. What happens?

698
01:05:32,819 –> 01:05:39,900
the antioxidant effect consists of
actually and what differentiates it from

699
01:05:39,900 –> 01:05:46,710
other antioxidants? —-
I'm often asked the question of hydrogen as an antioxidant

700
01:05:46,710 –> 01:05:49,510
Because
we only get so many antioxidants that are

701
01:05:49,510 –> 01:05:52,210
available in our food and through supplements
and everything.

702
01:05:52,210 –> 01:05:57,460
Why take hydrogen? Just another
antioxidant. Well, in reality I would say

703
01:05:57,460 –> 01:06:02,410
that's kind of a misleading… I don't
really consider hydrogen as an

704
01:06:02,410 –> 01:06:07,059
antioxidant. It is a reductant, has a
reducing property by nature because if

705
01:06:07,059 –> 01:06:12,250
it's hydrogen gas but it's not a
conventional antioxidant and in any way

706
01:06:12,250 –> 01:06:16,720
shape or form. Antioxidant is some
marketing term, burning, get it out there.

707
01:06:16,720 –> 01:06:21,760
The nature medicine publication in 2007
you know the title was: Hydrogen acts

708
01:06:21,760 –> 01:06:28,240
as a therapeutic antioxidant by
selectively scavenging cytotoxic oxygen

709
01:06:28,240 –> 01:06:33,069
radicals. And that really maybe helped
get a lot of press, a lot of interest,

710
01:06:33,069 –> 01:06:37,839
because everyone knows the antioxidant
buzzword. But it's a lot more complicated,

711
01:06:37,839 –> 01:06:42,880
elaborate and amazing story than that. But we
should talk about that a little bit more,

712
01:06:42,880 –> 01:06:49,240
because really it shouldn't be
considered an antioxidant. Really what's

713
01:06:49,240 –> 01:06:53,770
going on is: First let's look at the
antioxidant property of hydrogen. At

714
01:06:53,770 –> 01:07:00,250
antioxidant is … a molecule that is
able to donate its electrons to an

715
01:07:00,250 –> 01:07:06,819
oxidant and neutralize that. So like
vitamin C, ascorbic acid or vitamin E,

716
01:07:06,819 –> 01:07:12,069
tocopherol or other polyphenols are
antioxidants, because they can lose them

717
01:07:12,069 –> 01:07:16,540
electron from what's called a conjugated
pi system and be rather stable, lose that

718
01:07:16,540 –> 01:07:20,920
electron, donate it to that free radical
and neutralize that free radical so it

719
01:07:20,920 –> 01:07:24,069
doesn't wreak havoc in the body. Because,
of course, free radicals they are linked

720
01:07:24,069 –> 01:07:29,190
to you know, aging, diseases and so many others
problems because they can just oxidize and

721
01:07:29,190 –> 01:07:34,180
damage your DNA in your proteins and
cell membranes and of course that's what

722
01:07:34,180 –> 01:07:38,619
you'll make the Apple turn brown or
causes the rust. It's all this oxidation

723
01:07:38,619 –> 01:07:45,280
and that can cause problems on the body.
So that's what antioxidants are like

724
01:07:45,280 –> 01:07:50,250
hydrogen gas compare as an
antioxidant to these other antioxidants.

725
01:07:50,250 –> 01:07:56,380
Well, if we just look at the molecules
first yourself, okay, hydrogen gas is a

726
01:07:56,380 –> 01:07:59,599
very small molecule, it's a smallest
molecule that is there.

727
01:07:59,599 –> 01:08:05,359
And so things that are going to dictate
cellular bioavailability is the size of

728
01:08:05,359 –> 01:08:09,559
the molecule in order to scavenge any free radical
it actually has to get to where that free radical is

729
01:08:09,559 –> 01:08:14,209
being produced. And most radicals are
produced in the, near the mitochondria

730
01:08:14,209 –> 01:08:20,000
and various complexes 1 and 3 and in
different places hydrogen the gas

731
01:08:20,000 –> 01:08:23,239
actually has got to get there which it can
very easy to get to any office there

732
01:08:23,239 –> 01:08:27,380
but because hydrogen is so small it's able to
defuse the cell membrane into the

733
01:08:27,380 –> 01:08:30,859
substitute compartments of the
mitochondria, the nucleus and different areas

734
01:08:30,859 –> 01:08:33,889
very easily. Where some of the others
molecules, they need to go through

735
01:08:33,889 –> 01:08:37,880
transporter mechanisms or maybe because
like vitamin C is more hydrophilic, water

736
01:08:37,880 –> 01:08:43,310
soluble, it has a difficult time getting
it through the cell membrane or maybe

737
01:08:43,310 –> 01:08:47,029
Vitamin E which is more fat soluble,
hydrophobic, wants to stay in the cell

738
01:08:47,029 –> 01:08:50,449
membranes, so it doesn't want to be in the
water space very much. So

739
01:08:50,449 –> 01:08:55,099
it makes it a bit more difficult for
those molecules. So just on the physical

740
01:08:55,099 –> 01:08:59,929
properties, chemical properties of
hydrogen, the other antioxidants hydrogen

741
01:08:59,929 –> 01:09:05,599
is superior because it really can get
into the cells very easily and wherever it is

742
01:09:05,599 –> 01:09:10,940
can potentially scavenge these radicals.
But does it really scavenge the free

743
01:09:10,940 –> 01:09:15,739
radicals? Well, first off hydrogen and that
Nature Medicine paper said this,

744
01:09:15,739 –> 01:09:21,699
is a selective antioxidant. So what is
a selective antioxidant? Well,

745
01:09:21,699 –> 01:09:27,380
basically we have lots of free radicals
or a better term that includes free

746
01:09:27,380 –> 01:09:31,670
radicals is reactive oxygen species and
that includes like hydrogen peroxide, which is

747
01:09:31,670 –> 01:09:37,190
not a free radical but is a reactive
oxygen species or ROS, includes all of

748
01:09:37,190 –> 01:09:43,339
these and these ROS molecules are both
bad for you and they're good for you.

749
01:09:43,339 –> 01:09:46,359
Kind of like cholesterol, you know for a
long time people we're saying: Hey,

750
01:09:46,359 –> 01:09:49,880
cholesterol is just bad for you lets get
get rid of it all. And they're like oh

751
01:09:49,880 –> 01:09:53,389
wait there's HDL and there's LDL. And now we're
finding there's different patterns of

752
01:09:53,389 –> 01:09:58,550
the LDL and the HDL. Now some of them are better
or worse. Same thing with the ROS,

753
01:09:58,550 –> 01:10:03,290
Reactive Oxygen Species, some reactive
oxygen species are good for you, some of them

754
01:10:03,290 –> 01:10:08,659
they are bad for you. A lot of the
cell communication and the way the cells

755
01:10:08,659 –> 01:10:12,389
work are based on this redox
chemistry

756
01:10:12,389 –> 01:10:19,079
okay, of transferring electrons and free
radicals. In fact, the vasodilation or

757
01:10:19,079 –> 01:10:24,389
widen the blood vessels, is caused
by a free radical known as nitric oxide

758
01:10:24,389 –> 01:10:28,469
which many of you are familiar with.
Nitric oxide is a free radical.

759
01:10:28,469 –> 01:10:31,889
It's rather stable, of course its not stable as
a free radical but it's more stable,

760
01:10:31,889 –> 01:10:37,050
but it's produced at a specific
location and it reacts with its target

761
01:10:37,050 –> 01:10:42,209
and it causes all of the
benefits that nitric oxide does. And of

762
01:10:42,209 –> 01:10:46,499
course if that radical nitric oxide
gets too high then it wreaks a lot of

763
01:10:46,499 –> 01:10:51,419
havoc, nitro-oxidative damage, reacts
with superoxide radicals to form peroxy

764
01:10:51,419 –> 01:10:56,880
nitrite and peroxy-nitrite is an
oxidant that's very damaging

765
01:10:56,880 –> 01:11:03,499
harmful for you. And when we, our immune
system, uses reactive oxygen species, then

766
01:11:03,499 –> 01:11:09,479
to kill the pathogens, as we need
these free radicals. Even when we

767
01:11:09,479 –> 01:11:14,159
exercise we produce more free radicals
through breathing so much more oxygen. So we have

768
01:11:14,159 –> 01:11:18,929
more free radical production and these
free radicals are actually what likely

769
01:11:18,929 –> 01:11:25,559
mediate the actual benefits of exercise.
Because these free radicals activate

770
01:11:25,559 –> 01:11:29,189
transcription factors that induce like
mitochondrial biogenesis, more mitochondrial,

771
01:11:29,189 –> 01:11:32,849
more energy producing
organelles than ourselves. So a lot of these

772
01:11:32,849 –> 01:11:38,340
benefits are produced by these free
radicals. So what dictates, if the free

773
01:11:38,340 –> 01:11:43,199
radical or reactive oxygen species is
good for you or bad for you? Well, that

774
01:11:43,199 –> 01:11:48,630
main thing that dictates that is the
reactivity of that free radical, like I

775
01:11:48,630 –> 01:11:52,409
said nitric oxide is a free radical but
it's not as reactive as, say another

776
01:11:52,409 –> 01:11:58,289
radical such as the hydroxyl radical
which is just OH neutral, has a lone pair

777
01:11:58,289 –> 01:12:04,139
electron, it's very reactive, very
cytotoxic or cell damaging and this

778
01:12:04,139 –> 01:12:08,909
hydroxyl radical, it can be produced when
there's an excess amount of others

779
01:12:08,909 –> 01:12:13,079
free radicals like super oxide in the
Fenton reaction or through the

780
01:12:13,079 –> 01:12:19,079
hydrogen peroxide, through various ***
mechanisms that can produce hydroxyl

781
01:12:19,079 –> 01:12:22,369
radicals. This hydroxyl radical is just
very damaging, in fact there's

782
01:12:22,369 –> 01:12:27,199
really no known benefit for it and
there's no detoxification enzymes

783
01:12:27,199 –> 01:12:33,499
specific for that. So you have radicals
like superoxide anion radical there is

784
01:12:33,499 –> 01:12:38,629
a specific enzyme the body produces to
handle that free radical, called superoxide

785
01:12:38,629 –> 01:12:43,309
dismutase, or SOD aside. And you have
other things like hydrogen peroxide

786
01:12:43,309 –> 01:12:49,939
which is an oxidant and you have that
glutathione peroxidase or catalase

787
01:12:49,939 –> 01:12:53,840
that can handle those oxidants. But there
isn't anything like that for the

788
01:12:53,840 –> 01:12:57,499
hydroxyl radical. Hydroxyl radical is just
very reactive and reacts with

789
01:12:57,499 –> 01:13:04,340
everything and anything in its path. Well
a hydrogen gas is a very mild, very weak

790
01:13:04,340 –> 01:13:10,699
antioxidant, if you want. And it doesn't
react with anything. In fact, in order for

791
01:13:10,699 –> 01:13:13,669
hydrogen gas to react with anything
something has to react with it very much

792
01:13:13,669 –> 01:13:19,249
powerfully and the only radical that is
strong enough to do that is the hydroxyl

793
01:13:19,249 –> 01:13:24,289
radical. It's so powerful that it can
actually react with hydrogen gas and

794
01:13:24,289 –> 01:13:29,300
when it does it forms water, that's the
reaction, so it's kind of a neat story

795
01:13:29,300 –> 01:13:34,070
just like that. It forms the water as that
byproduct. So hydrogen gas is needed,

796
01:13:34,070 –> 01:13:39,860
indeed it cannot react and scavenge all
the other radicals and reactive oxygen

797
01:13:39,860 –> 01:13:43,909
species many of which may be very
beneficial for our body that we don't

798
01:13:43,909 –> 01:13:50,899
want to scavenge. And so actually that
could help explain why some of these,

799
01:13:50,899 –> 01:13:57,499
these clinical and human, large studies
using antioxidants have shown a taking

800
01:13:57,499 –> 01:14:01,519
high levels of these exogenous
antioxidants often have deleterious

801
01:14:01,519 –> 01:14:08,869
effects, can be harmful to our health, maybe
because they are scavenging too

802
01:14:08,869 –> 01:14:13,879
many of these beneficial molecules and
beneficial reactive oxygen species that

803
01:14:13,879 –> 01:14:20,749
we actually need and it's perturbing or
exacerbating this dysregulation of this

804
01:14:20,749 –> 01:14:25,820
redox balance. So hydrogen if it scavenges
anything it's only going to scavenge

805
01:14:25,820 –> 01:14:29,750
this hydroxyl radical and the Nature
Medicine paper also mentioned

806
01:14:29,750 –> 01:14:36,290
potentially then peroxy nitrite molecule
which is very oxidizing as well. But even

807
01:14:36,290 –> 01:14:44,990
with that: the benefits of hydrogen
cannot really be attributed to the

808
01:14:44,990 –> 01:14:49,970
scavenging of hydroxyl radicals.
There's too many explanations and

809
01:14:49,970 –> 01:14:54,830
reasons and evidence that it is just it
doesn't make very much sense that it's,

810
01:14:54,830 –> 01:14:58,460
that's where it's doing all the benefits. Really
what we're seeing the benefits of

811
01:14:58,460 –> 01:15:05,060
hydrogen is modulating in this cell
activity of hydrogen or where it's acting as

812
01:15:05,060 –> 01:15:09,260
more of a gaseous signal modulator
like other gaseous molecules. Nitric

813
01:15:09,260 –> 01:15:14,570
oxide is a gas, hydrogen sulfide, carbon
monoxide, these are well-recognized

814
01:15:14,570 –> 01:15:20,300
gaseous signaling molecules and hydrogen
has a similar idea where they can do

815
01:15:20,300 –> 01:15:27,080
that. And there was an article just
published in May of 2017 where it showed

816
01:15:27,080 –> 01:15:32,660
that hydrogen could actually, has a in the
mitochondria increase in mitochondrial

817
01:15:32,660 –> 01:15:36,170
membrane, potential increase in ATP
production, but it was doing this because

818
01:15:36,170 –> 01:15:41,210
it had a transit increase in a
superoxide radical production in the

819
01:15:41,210 –> 01:15:46,580
mitochondria and this radical increased
production, then activated others

820
01:15:46,580 –> 01:15:51,110
transcription factors including like the
NRF 2 – pathway which induces as a

821
01:15:51,110 –> 01:15:57,080
transcription factor which induces more
antioxidant enzymes like glutathione and

822
01:15:57,080 –> 01:16:01,370
superoxide dismutase.
So, maybe this is one of the mechanisms

823
01:16:01,370 –> 01:16:05,960
that hydrogen works it's more of a
hormetic or hormesis mechanism, mitohormetic

824
01:16:05,960 –> 01:16:13,700
which is able to transit,
increase in ROS production and that is,

825
01:16:13,700 –> 01:16:18,740
mediates many of the benefits of
hydrogen. So if correctly understood one

826
01:16:18,740 –> 01:16:23,470
could consider that hydrogen is good for
you because one, it is a very weak

827
01:16:23,470 –> 01:16:28,520
antioxidant it doesn't scavenge all the good ones,
if it scavenges anything it's only going to

828
01:16:28,520 –> 01:16:34,820
scavenge the very bad radicals that cause
the most damage and two, it's kind of like

829
01:16:34,820 –> 01:16:39,650
a potentially a pro-oxidant
and then it actually can increase, very

830
01:16:39,650 –> 01:16:42,690
small amounts, not enough to be toxic.
Just

831
01:16:42,690 –> 01:16:49,560
enough to induce transcription factors,
it produces just enough oxidants

832
01:16:49,560 –> 01:16:54,989
superoxide radical in the mitochondria.
We've seen with…. lactose instead of

833
01:16:54,989 –> 01:17:00,870
glucose, but we see that it can increase
transiently small amounts of ROS and

834
01:17:00,870 –> 01:17:04,020
that in turn mediates a lot of these benefits.
So again

835
01:17:04,020 –> 01:17:08,850
If properly understood hydrogen is beneficial
not because it's a powerful antioxidant but

836
01:17:08,850 –> 01:17:14,130
because it's a very, very weak
antioxidant that only goes up to the bad

837
01:17:14,130 –> 01:17:19,860
guys and is a small Pro oxidant that
works kind of like how exercise does.

838
01:17:19,860 –> 01:17:24,120
We increase the amount of free radicals just
a little bit and then we get all that

839
01:17:24,120 –> 01:17:31,610
benefits after that. — The presence of
dissolved hydrogen gas causes a low

840
01:17:31,610 –> 01:17:40,770
negative redox potential which can be
measured as ORP but what is surprising

841
01:17:40,770 –> 01:17:48,719
for many people a low and negative ORP
does not yet mean that a lot of hydrogen

842
01:17:48,719 –> 01:17:55,980
is dissolved in water. How can this be?
explained? —- So often I'm asked about what

843
01:17:55,980 –> 01:18:00,870
about the ORP and meter or the
measurement.measurement. ORP standing for oxidation

844
01:18:00,870 –> 01:18:05,520
reduction potential and this using to
measure the amount of hydrogen in the

845
01:18:05,520 –> 01:18:12,060
water. Well, it doesn't really work that
way. It's not specific to hydrogen and

846
01:18:12,060 –> 01:18:16,710
it's not a very accurate method for
measuring hydrogen because it's not specific to

847
01:18:16,710 –> 01:18:22,250
hydrogen. The ORP that really likes it
works, is what it stands for, is

848
01:18:22,250 –> 01:18:27,570
oxidation, okay so we have something
oxidized species and reduction as we have

849
01:18:27,570 –> 01:18:31,590
reduced species, potential. potential
means difference, so really it's the

850
01:18:31,590 –> 01:18:36,900
difference between an oxidized species
and a reduced species and it's just a

851
01:18:36,900 –> 01:18:42,449
ratio of that. It's actually negative
logarithmic ratio of that difference

852
01:18:42,449 –> 01:18:46,620
between the oxidized species and the
reduced species and that's based upon

853
01:18:46,620 –> 01:18:53,420
the well-known Nernst equation and
this can be calculated. And that's really

854
01:18:53,420 –> 01:18:58,969
how it's working with when you add anything
to water. So when you have a solution

855
01:18:58,969 –> 01:19:04,849
and you measure the ORP of that water
it's going to give you a number and it

856
01:19:04,849 –> 01:19:09,409
could be a positive millivolt number or
a negative millivolt number. If it's a

857
01:19:09,409 –> 01:19:15,429
positive mV number: all that means is
that there are more oxidized species, not

858
01:19:15,429 –> 01:19:20,900
necessarily oxidizing but just more
oxidized species than there are reduced

859
01:19:20,900 –> 01:19:24,650
species and if it's negative there are
more reduced species than there are

860
01:19:24,650 –> 01:19:31,340
oxidized species. So when you get that
negative ORP reading you should ask first

861
01:19:31,340 –> 01:19:39,770
yourself, okay, what is responsible for
making this negative ORP? Is it good for

862
01:19:39,770 –> 01:19:43,610
you or is it bad for you? Because you can
add all sorts of things to get a

863
01:19:43,610 –> 01:19:48,679
negative ORP. You can add a number of
chemicals that are toxic for you, whether

864
01:19:48,679 –> 01:19:54,440
you know, … or dihydropurines or a bit of a kind
of ethanol or different

865
01:19:54,440 –> 01:19:59,119
redox states and metals or different
things: they can all give you a very

866
01:19:59,119 –> 01:20:04,190
negative number but if you were to drink
it could be rather toxic for you

867
01:20:04,190 –> 01:20:08,659
body! So just because something has a
negative ORP does not in any way, shape

868
01:20:08,659 –> 01:20:12,619
or form means that it's actually good
for you. So the first question is when

869
01:20:12,619 –> 01:20:17,360
you see a negative ORP number, ask
yourself: what's making the negative ORP?

870
01:20:17,360 –> 01:20:21,199
And now you find out: okay, that's it
actually bad for you I don't want it, or you

871
01:20:21,199 –> 01:20:25,309
find hey, this is good for you, such as
maybe it's from vitamin C, maybe some

872
01:20:25,309 –> 01:20:29,030
polyphenols from like a tea or
something or maybe it's from

873
01:20:29,030 –> 01:20:32,719
hydrogen gas itself. Because when you dissolve
hydrogen gas in the water it gives a

874
01:20:32,719 –> 01:20:36,739
very nice negative ORP. So now you know:

875
01:20:36,739 –> 01:20:41,059
Okay, the negative ORP is not there because
it's bad for you because it's top,

876
01:20:41,059 –> 01:20:45,050
because it's good for you. thesis
molecules are good for you. Then the next

877
01:20:45,050 –> 01:20:50,900
question to ask yourself is but is the
concentration enough to even be worth my

878
01:20:50,900 –> 01:20:56,869
time? Because again the ORP is not, it's
not measuring a concentration, it's

879
01:20:56,869 –> 01:21:01,860
negative logarithm
of the ratio, of that difference and so on

880
01:21:01,860 –> 01:21:04,980
it has nothing about concentration in it.
It's just the greater the difference

881
01:21:04,980 –> 01:21:08,940
then, and then this negative log so it's
going to make the number even bigger

882
01:21:08,940 –> 01:21:16,050
than it really is. So you get that
number whether it's negative 500

883
01:21:16,050 –> 01:21:20,790
millivolts or anything you still
actually have no idea what the

884
01:21:20,790 –> 01:21:24,150
concentration of the active ingredients
are. So let's say, we talked about it

885
01:21:24,150 –> 01:21:30,330
hydrogen gas. Well, because in this case
with just water and hydrogen gas

886
01:21:30,330 –> 01:21:34,740
you have the reduced species which is
hydrogen gas, h2, and you have that

887
01:21:34,740 –> 01:21:39,660
oxidized species which is H+
and you know, include oxygen and some

888
01:21:39,660 –> 01:21:43,650
other you know maybe some chlorine in
there if it gets in there. These are the

889
01:21:43,650 –> 01:21:50,640
oxidized species. But lets focus on H2 and the H+.
Well H+ that is what pH is, we talked

890
01:21:50,640 –> 01:21:57,270
about: the more H+ the more acidic and
the less H+ the more alkaline. And if

891
01:21:57,270 –> 01:22:02,070
it's H2 divided by H+ well if we
We have very little alkaline water

892
01:22:02,070 –> 01:22:07,950
H+ ions therefore a numerator
divided by a smaller denominator

893
01:22:07,950 –> 01:22:12,660
going to give a larger quotient and the
negative log of that quotient is going

894
01:22:12,660 –> 01:22:17,010
to give it more negative number. So you
get something that's very large. Like that

895
01:22:17,010 –> 01:22:23,430
more alkaline the pH is the more negative
the ORP becomes. But you didn't notice,

896
01:22:23,430 –> 01:22:26,040
we didn't change anything in this case
with the numerator, with the actual

897
01:22:26,040 –> 01:22:31,230
hydrogen concentration. So theoretically
if everything worked out perfectly then

898
01:22:31,230 –> 01:22:34,770
based on the Nernst equation we can, okay
calculate what the pH is, get the H+

899
01:22:34,770 –> 01:22:38,790
concentration and then you know do that
inverse exponent you know and then we

900
01:22:38,790 –> 01:22:41,550
can figure out the concentration of
hydrogen. But it doesn't work that way,

901
01:22:41,550 –> 01:22:46,320
I've tried it. You have totally different
concentrations. And the reason why is

902
01:22:46,320 –> 01:22:53,640
because this ORP meter again is not
specific to just hydrogen. And we're

903
01:22:53,640 –> 01:22:59,250
talking about changes in concentration
that is very small compared to what's

904
01:22:59,250 –> 01:23:04,140
going on. So for example, in normal tap
water we have hydrogen gas in the

905
01:23:04,140 –> 01:23:09,860
atmosphere, a very small amount, 0,0005%
and that hydrogen also gets

906
01:23:09,860 –> 01:23:12,860
dissolved into the water. So now you have it
a concentration of phase zero point zero

907
01:23:12,860 –> 01:23:19,370
0.0000001 ppm. Now, if you
measure the ORP of just your water,

908
01:23:19,370 –> 01:23:24,110
you say you have negative, or sorry, positive
you know, three hundred ORP mV,

909
01:23:24,110 –> 01:23:28,070
positive 300
millivolts, well and you have that much

910
01:23:28,070 –> 01:23:36,199
hydrogen gas in it, 0.0000001 ppm. Now if you
increase the concentration of hydrogen 1

911
01:23:36,199 –> 01:23:45,620
million times, right, then you will get
0.1ppm. About 0.1 ppm. You increased the

912
01:23:45,620 –> 01:23:50,210
concentration a million times, like that
because logarithmic in the ratio and

913
01:23:50,210 –> 01:23:53,780
everything you're going to see that ORP
reading is going to go from a

914
01:23:53,780 –> 01:23:59,510
positive 300 to negative 500 because you
change that a million times.

915
01:23:59,510 –> 01:24:04,250
Now, let's say you're going to go from
0.1 to 1 ppm,

916
01:24:04,250 –> 01:24:10,370
so you change it 10 times. If you change
it just 10 times you're not really going

917
01:24:10,370 –> 01:24:14,719
to see a lot of a change at all in the
ORP. It's still going to be around

918
01:24:14,719 –> 01:24:21,320
negative 500 millivolts. So we just don't
see a lot of change at all with increasing

919
01:24:21,320 –> 01:24:24,980
the concentration of hydrogen and that is why,
and I've done this many times, you can do

920
01:24:24,980 –> 01:24:31,310
as well, you can actually say, have two
glasses of water, one of them, both of them

921
01:24:31,310 –> 01:24:36,679
have an ORP of say negative 500
millivolts but one of them has a

922
01:24:36,679 –> 01:24:41,300
hydrogen concentration of 1 ppm which
can be therapeutic. The others

923
01:24:41,300 –> 01:24:46,300
concentration is say 0.1 ppm which
may or may not be therapeutic.

924
01:24:46,300 –> 01:24:52,370
But the ORP is the same. You can
actually have it where one is 1 ppm, the

925
01:24:52,370 –> 01:24:58,429
other is 0.1 ppm but the one is 0.1 ppm
has an ORP of negative eight hundred

926
01:24:58,429 –> 01:25:05,300
millivolts. Why? Because one of 1 ppm is a
neutral pH, you can have 0.1 ppm could be

927
01:25:05,300 –> 01:25:11,570
a pH of 10 and all of a sudden that'll
show a much higher concentration.

928
01:25:11,570 –> 01:25:18,139
Because again: pH is also logarithmic. So
if you go from a pH 7 to a pH of 10

929
01:25:18,139 –> 01:25:23,619
that's 7, 8, 9, 10. That's
ten, hundred, thousand times less

930
01:25:23,619 –> 01:25:29,239
H+ ions. So you have a 1000 times less
smaller number on the denominator and

931
01:25:29,239 –> 01:25:33,829
now the numerators, you can stay the
same, all these things make the changes

932
01:25:33,829 –> 01:25:38,480
so it's reflected exponentially
because it is an exponential problem, a

933
01:25:38,480 –> 01:25:45,349
logarithm and that changes. So you cannot
use the ORP meter to see which

934
01:25:45,349 –> 01:25:52,790
concentration is higher. Now: there can be
some benefits of using an ORP meter. In

935
01:25:52,790 –> 01:25:58,639
general fresh fruit and different things,
fresh juices should often have a

936
01:25:58,639 –> 01:26:04,040
negative ORP reading. And so you could say if it's fresh
they have a negative ORP reading, that's fine.

937
01:26:04,040 –> 01:26:09,560
When it comes to the hydrogen, you can't use it at all
in any way to see

938
01:26:10,560 –> 01:26:16,980
which one has more hydrogen than
another. But I will say this, that

939
01:26:14,780 –> 01:26:19,790
you cannot, if you have a high
concentration of hydrogen, say 1 ppm

940
01:26:19,790 –> 01:26:26,750
or greater, you'll always have a rather low
negative ORP say negative 400, negative 500

941
01:26:26,750 –> 01:26:33,469
millivolts or less. So if you have a
negative 4 negative 500 millivolts you

942
01:26:33,469 –> 01:26:39,469
know that you have a concentration of
hydrogen that's maybe, could be 0.05 ppm

943
01:26:39,469 –> 01:26:44,739
to 10 ppm. It could be all those numbers
but if you have an ORP of say negative

944
01:26:44,739 –> 01:26:51,980
10 or positive 100 then you know there
there is no hydrogen in that glass of water.

945
01:26:51,980 –> 01:26:57,079
So, really it has a negative ORP, there's
hydrogen, you just have no idea how much. Sorry if

946
01:26:57,079 –> 01:27:02,239
you have a negative ORP and you know
that the chemical species in the

947
01:27:02,239 –> 01:27:06,590
the water is hydrogen, then you know that
there's hydrogen in there. You don't know

948
01:27:06,590 –> 01:27:11,420
how much there is in there. So you have to
measure that and you can use like I

949
01:27:11,420 –> 01:27:17,030
mentioned earlier the redox titration
reagent. So that's very important

950
01:27:17,030 –> 01:27:21,469
to remember. The whole benefit is if you
use the ORP meter, you measure the water,

951
01:27:21,469 –> 01:27:25,429
that claims to be hydrogen, and you're only
getting, you know, negative 50 or a

952
01:27:25,429 –> 01:27:29,210
positive number, you don't even need to
worry about measuring the hydrogen because

953
01:27:29,210 –> 01:27:37,170
there isn't going to be any suitable concentration.
—- Some people believe that they don't

954
01:27:37,170 –> 01:27:45,780
have to laboriously measure if hydrogen
is dissolved in water. They then show, for

955
01:27:45,780 –> 01:27:53,340
example, how the water flows out of a
water ionizer, all milky, and say then

956
01:27:53,340 –> 01:28:02,460
that the hydrogen can be seen after all. Or
they hold a lighter to the water outlet

957
01:28:02,460 –> 01:28:11,250
of the device and there are small
explosive. Or if you look at one of

958
01:28:11,250 –> 01:28:18,540
these small hydrogen boosters with a PEM
cell, there you can see how more or less

959
01:28:18,540 –> 01:28:25,620
bubbles move through the water and
appear to dissolve. Then, on the other

960
01:28:25,620 –> 01:28:31,140
hand, there are people who say it
depends on the size of the bubbles, that

961
01:28:31,140 –> 01:28:39,930
they dissolve in water. What exactly
happens there, when hydrogen dissolves in

962
01:28:39,930 –> 01:28:50,610
water and can the hydrogen be seen?
Often I get a question about the hydrogen

963
01:28:50,610 –> 01:28:54,480
gas dissolved in the water because it
what emitting. Some of these products out

964
01:28:54,480 –> 01:28:58,710
there when they make their hydrogen water
they see just tons of gases, bubbles in

965
01:28:58,710 –> 01:29:04,740
there. It's just milky water. Why? It's foggy, you
see all these gas bubbles. Does that mean

966
01:29:04,740 –> 01:29:08,100
the hydrogen what does that mean that
means that there's so much hydrogen there

967
01:29:08,100 –> 01:29:12,780
that's supersaturated and the gas just
coming out, or what's going on? Is this a

968
01:29:12,780 –> 01:29:16,290
good sign?
Well if you see the gas bubbles in there

969
01:29:16,290 –> 01:29:22,800
you know that hydrogen is being produced
but if you see the bubbles, those bubbles

970
01:29:22,800 –> 01:29:27,240
you see is the gas that is not dissolved.
And really it's not going to offer you

971
01:29:27,240 –> 01:29:30,570
any benefit because it's not in the
water, it's just when you see bubbles,

972
01:29:30,570 –> 01:29:34,440
micro bubbles, they go through two things
these are going to go in,

973
01:29:34,440 –> 01:29:37,710
they're going to continue shrinking,
shrinking until and the gas molecules go

974
01:29:37,710 –> 01:29:41,900
into the water until it's dissolved or
they'll coalesce together and get larger and then

975
01:29:41,900 –> 01:29:46,830
evaporate out of the water. So those are the
two options when you see that. So when

976
01:29:46,830 –> 01:29:53,699
you see that. So when you see those big macro bubbles in
the water, well it's not dissolved in the

977
01:29:53,699 –> 01:29:58,550
water. So you don't know what that is
concentration is. And in fact I've seen

978
01:29:58,550 –> 01:30:04,380
you can make water that is so foggy: it
looks just like milk. And then when

979
01:30:04,380 –> 01:30:08,520
you go to measure the concentration,
assuming it's going to be really high,

980
01:30:08,520 –> 01:30:14,610
you can't even measure 0.1 ppm. So
just because something has tons of

981
01:30:14,610 –> 01:30:18,719
bubbles in it's milky and it's foggy and
everything doesn't mean that

982
01:30:18,719 –> 01:30:22,770
hydrogen is actually dissolved in
water. It just means that there's lots of

983
01:30:22,770 –> 01:30:25,679
bubbles there.
So you actually still have to measure

984
01:30:25,679 –> 01:30:31,350
the concentration of hydrogen. Because
it's the unseen bubbles, if you want, that

985
01:30:31,350 –> 01:30:37,800
matter not this not the ones that are
lakes. And similarly there are various

986
01:30:37,800 –> 01:30:41,790
devices where you can light a
lighter for example and hold it

987
01:30:41,790 –> 01:30:46,380
underneath where the water comes out and
you can hear the sparks and crack, crack, crack and

988
01:30:46,380 –> 01:30:52,080
that's a great demonstration showing that
it really is producing hydrogen.

989
01:30:52,080 –> 01:30:57,030
But it's a very big difference
between producing hydrogen and dissolved

990
01:30:57,030 –> 01:31:00,570
hydrogen. And the therapeutic benefits
come from the dissolved hydrogen so

991
01:31:00,570 –> 01:31:04,560
really that's just something that you
have hydrogen that's not dissolved in

992
01:31:04,560 –> 01:31:08,610
the water. Now you may have hydrogen, that's also
dissolved in the water but again you'll

993
01:31:08,610 –> 01:31:13,590
have to test that. Just because it's
making cracking sounds doesn't mean

994
01:31:13,590 –> 01:31:19,619
anything. I mean you could even put that
argument that a machine that makes water

995
01:31:19,619 –> 01:31:23,489
with no cracking is more effective
because it, all the gas ends up getting

996
01:31:23,489 –> 01:31:26,429
dissolved into the water instead of
being wasted with the atmosphere you

997
01:31:26,429 –> 01:31:31,290
know. It's all marketing stuff, if
you will. But the point is, you need to

998
01:31:31,290 –> 01:31:35,850
actually measure the concentration of
hydrogen in the water and can't just look

999
01:31:35,850 –> 01:31:40,050
at something say yes it's foggy yes it's
milky yes it makes a cracking sound and

1000
01:31:40,050 –> 01:31:45,690
therefore has hydrogen in it. We don't
know that. The gas dissolution takes time.

1001
01:31:45,690 –> 01:31:51,270
We, in our body for example we dissolve
carbon dioxide in our blood very quickly

1002
01:31:51,270 –> 01:31:54,760
and it has to get out of the blood, we
exhale it

1003
01:31:54,760 –> 01:31:58,330
and that has to happen very quickly. And
that's why we have an enzyme called

1004
01:31:58,330 –> 01:32:02,140
carbonic anhydrase to do that: So it can
dissolve the gas very quickly and

1005
01:32:02,140 –> 01:32:06,520
release it very quickly. If we did have
an enzyme which works very, very fast.

1006
01:32:06,520 –> 01:32:10,690
One of the fastest enzymes that there are.
If we didn't have that enzyme we would die

1007
01:32:10,690 –> 01:32:15,520
so quickly because we wouldn't be able
to dissolve the gas into the water or

1008
01:32:15,520 –> 01:32:20,830
release it out of our bloodstream and so on
again with hydrogen gass it's got to

1009
01:32:20,830 –> 01:32:24,820
dissolve in the water and it doesn't just
happen by just simply bubbling, it takes

1010
01:32:24,820 –> 01:32:30,130
time to reach that equilibrium. —-
What type of water is best suited for producing

1011
01:32:30,130 –> 01:32:36,400
hydrogen water? Is it rather mineral rich
water or the opposite RO water, also

1012
01:32:36,400 –> 01:32:45,490
known as reverse osmosis water? —-
I'm often asked also which water is the best to

1013
01:32:45,490 –> 01:32:50,560
make our hydrogen rich water and it's
a very difficult question because it depends

1014
01:32:50,560 –> 01:32:53,260
on how you're making the hydrogen water.
Are you, do

1015
01:32:53,260 –> 01:32:57,340
you just have a, take a gas and bubble
put it into the water or do you have a machine

1016
01:32:57,340 –> 01:33:01,660
what kind of machine is it? All these
different things. It depends, for some

1017
01:33:01,660 –> 01:33:07,600
machines the electrolysis process you
only use like a doubly distilled water, very

1018
01:33:07,600 –> 01:33:13,360
pure, no ions, because the membrane itself
is the electrolyte and that's how that

1019
01:33:13,360 –> 01:33:16,990
works. Other things you have to have
electrolytes in there and so on

1020
01:33:16,990 –> 01:33:20,140
minerals you have the better
conductivity and the more effective

1021
01:33:20,140 –> 01:33:24,760
you're going to be able to make your hydrogen gas.
So there's so many variables when

1022
01:33:24,760 –> 01:33:30,910
it comes to that. All I could say is: you
can measure the concentration of hydrogen with

1023
01:33:30,910 –> 01:33:33,940
your device, you can measure the
concentration of hydrogen to see what's

1024
01:33:33,940 –> 01:33:38,230
going to work better you can check with
your company or manufacturer and see

1025
01:33:38,230 –> 01:33:44,200
what they recommend, if it matters at all,
and then if you just look at watch a

1026
01:33:44,200 –> 01:33:54,130
quality in general. Drinking water with
minerals in it, is good for you.

1027
01:33:54,130 –> 01:33:57,010
The minerals are very bioavailable,
that's one of the best ways to get

1028
01:33:57,010 –> 01:34:03,120
minerals and there's been very large
epidemiological studies showing that

1029
01:34:03,120 –> 01:34:09,070
water that contains minerals in them
good for your health, it's a great way to

1030
01:34:09,070 –> 01:34:14,500
get minerals from your source water
and for your dietary needs.

1031
01:34:14,500 –> 01:34:22,030
So RO water is not toxic for you,
it's, even though people say oh it's acidic or

1032
01:34:22,030 –> 01:34:26,800
something, it's not a it's not a
dangerous acid, it's not a buffered acid

1033
01:34:26,800 –> 01:34:31,329
or something where it can really harm
you, it's just it's lacking minerals and

1034
01:34:31,329 –> 01:34:36,639
your body needs minerals and there's not
going to be a big issue but it could be

1035
01:34:36,639 –> 01:34:41,590
wise to drink mineral water,
I think there's sufficient evidence to

1036
01:34:41,590 –> 01:34:46,480
suggest that drinking water rich in
minerals is a good option for you, but

1037
01:34:46,480 –> 01:34:55,119
certainly not required for life. —-
I would like to have a couple of technical questions

1038
01:34:55,119 –> 01:35:03,909
explained about the different
electrolysis devices which can be used

1039
01:35:03,909 –> 01:35:11,980
to produce hydrogen water. One is the
most interesting, there are the new PEM

1040
01:35:11,980 –> 01:35:20,199
cells and the multiple cells of water
ionizers that have been longer on the

1041
01:35:20,199 –> 01:35:28,840
market. Can you explain the difference? —-
So when it comes to the field of

1042
01:35:28,840 –> 01:35:34,150
electrolysis to make hydrogen for
medical or therapeutic use there are a

1043
01:35:34,150 –> 01:35:39,520
number of ways to do it. You have
your, your conventional electrolysis

1044
01:35:39,520 –> 01:35:45,219
chambers that have no membranes, that just
have an anode and a cathode. Hydrogen is

1045
01:35:45,219 –> 01:35:50,199
produced at the cathode and electrolysis
and oxygen… is

1046
01:35:50,199 –> 01:35:53,949
produced at the anode and the water is all mixed
together and there you have it. And

1047
01:35:53,949 –> 01:36:00,280
then there's units that have a special
membrane between it, that acts like that

1048
01:36:00,280 –> 01:36:04,599
salt bridge and it prevents the mixing
of the cathodic water from the analyte

1049
01:36:04,599 –> 01:36:09,820
water and that's what your ionizers (do)
that make alkaline and acidic water,

1050
01:36:09,820 –> 01:36:14,250
that's how they work: they have that
membrane and it separates the two and

1051
01:36:14,250 –> 01:36:18,280
then there's another
membranes that use the PEM or a proton

1052
01:36:18,280 –> 01:36:26,140
exchange membrane that allows only the
protons, the H+ ions to migrate in between

1053
01:36:26,140 –> 01:36:34,780
and then those protons react, get to the
cathode and produce hydrogen gas. So then

1054
01:36:34,780 –> 01:36:41,380
there's different ways to assemble these
types of chambers into a hydrogen water

1055
01:36:41,380 –> 01:36:49,030
product. For example with this use of the
SPE or solid polymer electrolyte, using this

1056
01:36:49,030 –> 01:36:55,450
PEM membrane style you could make the
pure hydrogen gas and then it's just

1057
01:36:55,450 –> 01:36:59,740
pure hydrogen gas that's made at the cathode
and the hydrogen gas is then infused

1058
01:36:59,740 –> 01:37:05,740
into the bulk drinking water and should
go through some sort of dissolver or

1059
01:37:05,740 –> 01:37:10,750
dissolving mixture of some sorts what
actually get into the water. So

1060
01:37:10,750 –> 01:37:16,060
those are the two methods of
electrolysis that's being used to make

1061
01:37:16,060 –> 01:37:20,590
hydrogen gas. Which one is better? Well, it
depends on how good the design is the best

1062
01:37:20,590 –> 01:37:24,010
design of another is always going to be
better than the worst design of the

1063
01:37:24,010 –> 01:37:29,380
others, right? So again you can simply
measure the concentration and then there

1064
01:37:29,380 –> 01:37:33,580
other things to look at. You can have
calcification and scale issues with this you

1065
01:37:33,580 –> 01:37:39,910
have to use this special water or not?
Or do you run the risk of having

1066
01:37:39,910 –> 01:37:43,870
electrode degradation? You have
to have pierced electrodes or you can

1067
01:37:43,870 –> 01:37:50,560
have the metal particles that get
into the water can be harmful for you.

1068
01:37:50,560 –> 01:37:55,900
Those, there's so many questions to consider when
looking at all of these things, and it is

1069
01:37:55,900 –> 01:38:10,170
just, it's still a new field of work
that's being developed right now.

Spoken words of the presentation of Tyler Le Baron about hydrogen – Munich 2017

Hello Tyler, it's nice that you were able to come to Munich today, we have so many questions for you. We've already had a lot of correspondence with each other, that's a book. Nearly. And now take on the rest of the questions, I'm really glad that you're here and answering our questions. Let's welcome viewers to Tyler Le Baron - he's the king.

Welcome once again to Munich, Tyler Le Baron, you are the founder, the head and the heart of the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation MHF in the USA, a globally active foundation that has taken it upon itself to promote the fairly young knowledge about the to spread medical use of hydrogen gas around the world. You are a biochemist and are still quite young yourself. Today, in May 2017, you are just twenty-nine years old and are already probably the most booked conference speaker in the world on this topic. International scientific luminaries sit on the advisory board. And you are essentially the chief coordinator of global research on this exploding topic. What do you see as the tasks of your foundation?

(Answer)

Yes, I am the founder of the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation. This is a science-based nonprofit organization. We are dedicated to promoting research, awareness and education about hydrogen as a medical gas. We do not sell, recommend or endorse any products. We just want to focus on advancing research and raising awareness of what hydrogen really is. Hydrogen research is still in its infancy. In fact, it only started around 2007, when an article appeared in the Nature Medicine Journal showing that hydrogen could have therapeutic benefits.

And while research has grown exponentially, there are still only around 1000 publications on molecular hydrogen. Of course, you might think that's a lot, which is true because it's increasing exponentially - but within academia this is only a tiny area of ​​research. That's why we really need a deeper understanding of molecular hydrogen. It is a fascinating field of activity for the MHF Foundation. And we hope that we can raise awareness and educate people about it. Because one thing is clear - and this was already known before it was known that hydrogen was very healing - hydrogen is safe. We produce it ourselves in our intestinal flora and are therefore constantly exposed to it. So it is something very natural. It has been used in deep-sea diving since the 1940s to prevent decompression or diver's sickness. Because hydrogen has such a high diffusion rate. It leaves the body very quickly. Toxic accumulation cannot occur. The people who have taken hydrogen gas at a dose that is literally millions of times higher than what we need for therapeutic use have the high Security value of hydrogen shown. And after we see that it is safe and at the same time look at the various studies, the clinical ones, the animal studies, the cell and tissue studies that have been carried out on different animals, not just rats, mice, pigs, dogs, monkeys, etc , then we start to say: Oh, it actually has some really remarkable benefits and we really need to understand exactly how it works and how to determine the dose. There are so many questions of understanding. But because it is a sure thing, it needs to be pursued more intensively because perhaps it could help a large number of people. 

With regard to the educational task of your foundation, we may first have to organize the basic concepts surrounding hydrogen for some parts of our audience so that we not only know what we are talking about here, but above all what we are talking about here not talk. There is often a lot of chaos between the different forms of hydrogen. Most people know it as a component of water, H2O, but terms like H, H+, H-, hydroxide, proton, hydrogen ion, active hydrogen, hydrogen radical, hydrogen superoxide, oxyhydrogen and much more are often thrown around. What is molecular hydrogen, which is so interesting for your foundation, all about?

One of the most frequently asked questions is: What is hydrogen anyway? Water is H2O, so that's not it. And if you give the water WAdds hydrogen Then it becomes H3O, i.e. a hydronium ion with an H+, which makes the water acidic? Or does the water make it alkaline because the pH value is the abbreviation for Potentia Hydrogenii, i.e. the power of hydrogen? And would the water then be more alkaline because more hydrogen also creates a higher pH value? So it’s all about these questions.

But first of all I want to say: When we talk about molecular hydrogen, that simply means hydrogen gas, i.e. what we have in mind as an alternative energy source. So it's about two hydrogen atoms that have combined to form a hydrogen molecule. It's about di-atomic hydrogen, where Di stands for two, i.e. diatomic hydrogen. Hydrogen gas is not tied to anything else, it is freely available. It is nothing else.

So the medically used hydrogen in hydrogen water, inhalation, injection or infusion is exactly the same as what I fill up with if I want to drive a hydrogen car with a fuel cell?

Yes, it is exactly the same hydrogen gas that you add to water, for example by bubbling it, like the gas used to fuel a hydrogen car or other types of fuel cells. It is extremely useful there because it contains three times as much energy as gasoline. And what we also see is that it is great for the human body. This is a really exciting thing. It is the molecule of the century from these two points of view. But when you put hydrogen gas into water, you don't hydrogenate it or, in other words, you don't create hydrogen bonds with the water molecules. It doesn't dissolve like salt, so water with salt ends up with water with chloride and sodium ions. And the sodium ions actually do not bind covalently or in any other way to the water molecule. They are just solved. Just like the hydrogen gas. It does not form H4O, H3O or any of the various forms of water. It's simply water with hydrogen gas. And if you ever have a saturated solution of hydrogen gas in the water, you should drink it fairly soon, otherwise the gas will quickly escape from the water.

So: There are different types of hydrogen, and maybe we should talk about them briefly. When we look at the water molecule, most people know: It looks kind of like Mickey Mouse. There is a big oxygen and the two hydrogen atoms are stuck to it. But mind you, they are so appropriate that they are not available elsewhere. Most compounds contain hydrogen somewhere, just look at the sugar, glucose, with the chemical formula C6, which is 6 carbon atoms, and O6, 6 oxygen atoms, and H12, 12 hydrogen atoms. So glucose contains 12 hydrogen atoms. Water has 2 hydrogen atoms. But that is completely different. Because some hydrogen atoms are bound to the glucose molecule, the others to the water molecule. These are completely different structures. Remember that the molecule always determines the function. With hydrogen gas we have two hydrogen atoms that are self-sufficient and have the smallest possible distance. It can diffuse very quickly through cell membranes and everywhere; it is the smallest molecule there is. This is molecular hydrogen. It is not tied to anything else. The other types of hydrogen that some people refer to are the hydrogen ion, which is H+. This is a positively charged hydrogen atom without an electron. It only has one proton. This hydrogen ion is actually what makes water acidic. Because an acid is defined as something that can release hydrogen ions. And if you have a molecule that is an acid, it can release a hydrogen ion into the water and acidify it. If acid comes into a base, it's about the pH value, which we can talk about briefly: The P in pH is called potentia or power. But this is expressed mathematically, because the power of pH 10 is exponential, more precisely it is the negative decadal logarithm. The P in pH actually means a negative logarithm and the H stands for the H+ ion. In fact, it is the negative decadal logarithm of the H+ concentration. So this is the true meaning of pH. When we talk about pH, we always talk about H+ ions. And the more H+ ions there are in the water, the more acidic the pH value becomes, because a higher number becomes smaller with a negative logarithm. Therefore H+ is always specific to make something sour.

Tyler, the entire universe is made up primarily of hydrogen. One can speak of an abundance rather than a lack. There is so much of it. Why is it still good for us and why is it useful for our health when we consume hydrogen?

Yes, of course, hydrogen is the most common of all elements. But we only find 0,00005 percent hydrogen gas in the atmosphere. So if we breathe in additional hydrogen gas, or if we dissolve hydrogen gas in water and then drink it, we certainly see therapeutic effects. This is a truly new field of biomedical research. Even a small amount of additional hydrogen gas brings benefits. For example, it reduces oxidative stress or inflammation. It leads to constant decline of joint diseases such as arthritis, which have their basis in oxidative stress and inflammation. We can therefore say that a little more molecular hydrogen in our body can be beneficial. But research on this is still in its infancy. We still need a deeper understanding of which types of illnesses and people hydrogen gas is most effective for.

But the preliminary results data and some of the clinical trials to date are very impressive and noteworthy. We hope that the more research is carried out, the more convincing hydrogen therapy will become.

Well, there is a lot of hydrogen in the universe. However, there is less than 1% of it in the atmosphere and on Earth. But where does even this small amount of this earthly scarce commodity come from? The hydrogen gas jets away into the universe at high speed. Where is it reproduced? And what significance does it actually have naturally in our living space?

Yes. that is a very interesting question. If you go way back in time, Earth had an atmosphere that was much more reductive in a chemical sense because the hydrogen concentration was much higher back then.  And that's where today's hydrogen comes from. In ancient times it was captured in various compounds. And there is also research that suggests that much of the water was formed through a reaction with oxygen. And on the other hand, we have hydrothermal vents in the deep sea, for example, where reactions catalyzed by basalt take place. Or consider iron and other metals that can donate electrons that react with water and thereby release hydrogen gas. And vice versa: When hydrogen gas became an energy source for the first organisms, the archaea and the bacteria, they were able to use it as an energy store and extract electrons from it. That was the origin of life. But over time the atmosphere changed, because hydrogen gas is the lightest molecule among all gases, it has the highest rate of dilution and it leaves the atmosphere very light and very quickly. However, it is constantly produced from water or by bacteria. Even within our bodies, a symbiotic relationship has developed throughout the body between the bacteria on our skin and in the intestinal tract. We see that the intestinal flora can metabolize the indigestible carbohydrates and that some of these bacteria actually produce hydrogen gas, so we always end up with a fairly high basal level of hydrogen gas in the blood and in exhalation. have. It's interesting that we've had this relationship with hydrogen gas since the beginning of time. Hydrogen was actually involved in the evolution of our prokaryotes and eukaryotes through hydrogenase and other things that evolved during evolution.

Well, we let our intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen and breathe it out constantly. Then why should it be healthy to breathe it in again or to absorb it through drinking?

In fact, one wonders why one should consume hydrogen when it is produced by our own bacteria. This is still an unsolved mystery. In fact, the bacteria can produce a basic amount of hydrogen. But both animal studies and human trials show that even a small additional amount of molecular hydrogen administered through drinking or inhalation provides therapeutic benefits and health benefits, whether dissolved in water or simply inhaled via an inhaler. One reason for this is the concentration of the gas. Because even if we receive a considerable amount of the bacteria, we get significantly more into the bloodstream through inhalation and reach the minimum dose that is necessary for the therapy to be successful. How high this dose is is not yet entirely clear, perhaps 20 micromoles at the cellular level.

Another thing is that although it is an intermittent supply of hydrogen, we generally see in pharmacology that there is a dulling effect when a signal is constantly present. This then leads to a desensitization to it. Maybe the same thing happens with molecular hydrogen too. The fact that with constant intake, despite certain advantages such as the permanent neutralization of the hydroxyl radical - which is always present - you can no longer count on the more important effects: for example the activity of hydrogen as a cell modulator, which gives it these anti-inflammatory effects. Or the phosphorylation of proteins or gene expressions. These all appear to be effects of interrupted supply or effects that occur later. A kind of impetus, if you will. Therefore, inhaling more concentrated hydrogen gas or drinking hydrogen-rich water can cause the concentration to fluctuate, thereby causing these temporary changes. In 2012, an article was published about a model experiment with Parkinson's disease. The authors showed that continuous hydrogen intake through inhalation of 2 percent air over 24 hours, 7 days per week had no effect on Parkinson's disease. Similarly, the administration of lactulose, which is metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce a large amount of hydrogen gas, had no effect. However, when the researchers only used the hydrogen gas for inhalation intermittently, for around 15 minutes per hour, there was a statistically significant treatment success. But what is particularly interesting about this experiment is that the inhalation method was nowhere near as successful as simply drinking hydrogen-rich water. So what we learn from this is the great importance of intermittent hydrogen supply. This is what I meant earlier when I talked about desensitization or a signal blunting effect. This is significant for the activation of cell modulation by hydrogen gas, which is very similar to all gaseous signaling molecules.

The second point is: the all-round care may be viewed differently. Because if you change the pharmacokinetics, you also influence the pharmacodynamics. In other words: Whether we inhale something or take it orally, a lot of the hydrogen changes. When you drink, you pass through your gastrointestinal tract into your blood. In contrast, when inhaled, the hydrogen goes directly through the lungs to the bloodstream. There was an article from Kyushu University that appeared in a Nature World magazine by Dr. Noda, who found that drinking hydrogen water causes neuroprotective secretion  of GHRELIN in the stomach. GHRELIN is a very good nerve protection and anti-inflammatory. And drinking hydrogen-rich water can cause GHRELIN to be released. This may not happen to this extent if you just breathe in the hydrogen gas. But through this other way  By administering it and taking it with breaks, we are slowly beginning to understand why the different effects of hydrogen occur in different diseases.

I would like to find out a little more about the solubility of hydrogen in water, i.e. what we can then drink as hydrogen water. With a salt crystal you can see how the water slowly dissolves it. It is broken down into its two ions, sodium and chloride. But hydrogen gas is not salt. It is a non-polar molecule, so it is not soluble through hydrogen bonding like a grain of salt. Isn't that a different kind of solubility? Somehow it seems to me that the hydrogen doesn't really feel comfortable in the water, but wants to get away quickly because it's basically afraid of water.

Yes, that's a good question. The number one question is actually whether hydrogen can be dissolved in water to produce hydrogen-rich water at all. And once you've put it there, it doesn't get away too quickly because it's actually not soluble at all. Well. The thing with solubility is always a relative term. Because everything is soluble in water to a small extent. At least at the atomic level. At standard air pressure and temperature conditions of 1 atm.  0,8 mmol or 1,6 ppm, i.e. 1,6 mg per liter of hydrogen, is soluble in water. So if you have a liter of water and there is a 100 percent hydrogen atmosphere at sea level above it, you get 1,6 mg of hydrogen dissolved in a liter of water.

So when you hear that - 1,6 mg of hydrogen in a liter of water: at first glance that doesn't seem like a lot. I could take 100 mg of vitamin C!

But: You forget that vitamin C is significantly heavier than hydrogen gas. Vitamin C has about 176 grams per mole...(inaudible)... In contrast, hydrogen gas only weighs 2 grams per mole. So the masses differ very significantly. So if you actually compare the molecules of hydrogen gas and vitamin C in water, you would see that there are actually more hydrogen molecules in a liter of water saturated at 1,6 ppm than you could fit molecules of vitamin C in there if you 100 mg of vitamin C dissolves. There are simply more hydrogen molecules! In that case that is a sufficient dose. But more importantly, when we look at current scientific studies with animal experiments and humans, we see that  it is an effective concentration. And furthermore, we see that if we take 1,6 mg of hydrogen orally in a liter of water, that liter is diluted by 40 liters of body water. So that goes down to a very low concentration of 10 to 20 micromoles. We can then do a self-experiment with the same concentration and we will still see an effect. The concentration of hydrogen that goes into the water can be sufficient, but we have to drink the hydrogen-rich water immediately after it is produced. Because it is a gas that does not combine with water. It doesn't dissolve easily and wants to evaporate into the atmosphere very quickly. Just take a look at carbonated drinks like sparkling water: the CO2 that is dissolved in the water quickly escapes. And if you let it sit, it will become weak. The CO2 goes out. And if you put hydrogen gas in? This does not disappear immediately, but remains for a certain time. Maybe if you drink it within half an hour, you might still have most of it. But it also depends on the surface of the container, external disturbances,  from the temperature and all such circumstances. So if you shake the water around, the hydrogen naturally evaporates much more quickly. The normal half-life of hydrogen gas in water is approximately 2 hours. So if you start with 1,6 ppm and then come back to test after 2 hours, the result will be close to 0,8 ppm. So you should drink it within half an hour.

7 question:  So if that's only 1,6 mg/l or 1,6 ppm, how come some people claim that they can make water with a much higher hydrogen content?

Yes, that is also a common question. Because we say that the saturation limit of hydrogen is reached at 1,6 ppm, this is no longer possible. How then are products possible that have a higher concentration like 2,6 ppm, 3 ppm, 5 ppm? How is that supposed to work? Is that even possible or just an advertising exaggeration?  Well, sometimes it really is just advertising talk. And people have no idea what concentration really means. You just blurt out a number. But you can get higher than 1,6 ppm. The 1,6 ppm is simply the standard equilibrium concentration at standard temperature and pressure. So if you just increase the pressure, you can get a higher concentration. And think back to the pressure, we're talking about a partial pressure of pure hydrogen gas, not a total pressure. So, for example, if you are at sea level with one atmosphere of pressure, then you have 1 atmosphere of total pressure. There is 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen  and all the other gases, that is then a partial pressure and not the total pressure, but only a partial pressure. But if you have 100 percent of hydrogen gas alone, at 1 atmosphere, then the concentration reaches an equilibrium state of 1,6 ppm with a sufficiently long wait. But as I said, if you pressurize a bottle, or do anything to increase the pressure, the equilibrium changes and the new saturation limit is maybe 3 ppm or 5 ppm. You can keep doing this with more and more pressure and thereby achieve higher concentration. Of course, at some point it becomes increasingly difficult to increase the pressure and the gas begins to disperse much more quickly. However, you can actually reach 3, 4 or 5 ppm, and some publications actually work with such a concentration.

Well, if people, for example, buy hydrogen water in a special drinking bag or buy an electrolysis device that can work at higher pressure: How can you actually check whether the water actually contains 2 or 3 or even more ppm ? You can see in videos from providers  Often a measuring device from the Japanese company Trustlex, which can display a maximum of 2 ppm, for example, and we know that this is not possible with such a measuring method in every type of water. How do you measure regardless of the type of water and how do you measure these values ​​above 2 ppm or even 5 and 10 ppm, which is all that is offered. The best way to do this is to use the H2 blue drops, which can be used to determine the hydrogen content through titration, right? How do the electrical and chemical measurement methods differ?

A frequently asked question is, here is a product that claims to contain a certain amount of hydrogen, but does it really have such a high concentration of hydrogen. First of all, it is difficult to have a stable hydrogen product as a finished drinking product or something similar. Because hydrogen is such a small gas. It quickly penetrates the layers of the storage vessel. Therefore, you cannot store it in plastic containers for a long time. It diffuses straight through. But there are already certain multi-coated aluminum vessels that can hold molecular hydrogen in water. And there you might want to measure your concentration yourself. And with certain devices you also want to measure whether the concentration is sufficient for therapeutic purposes. But measuring it is difficult because hydrogen is a nonpolar gas and therefore has no electrical properties that are easily measurable. For example, most measuring devices are equipped with ion-selective membranes. For example, a pH measuring device is tailored to the H+ ion. Or you have nitrate measuring devices that measure the nitrate ion, etc. But hydrogen is not an ion, but a neutral molecule. Other measuring devices measure, for example, the amount of oxygen in the water. The oxygen is neutral, but it is also polar, and it has a diamagnetic property that can be used for measurements. That doesn't work with hydrogen. So it's difficult. While there are some meters on the market that relate to hydrogen concentration, the only real option is gas chromatography. You have to create a standard calibration curve by starting from a known hydrogen concentration and adjusting the measuring device based on a second known value. With this calibration you can then determine an unknown value mathematically. But if there are measuring devices that are operated without calibration liquids with which the device could be calibrated, the chances of an exact measurement are very low. Such devices are on the way that try, but they cannot provide correct results because they are pH sensitive and show many problems that prevent a reliable reading. But there are also redox titration liquids that use methylene blue with colloidal platinum as a catalyst, which actually show a chemical reaction: This is the simplest and fastest method for determining hydrogen content. You put a drop of reagent into a beaker with 6 ml of hydrogen water and then the drop reacts with the hydrogen molecules in the water and the reaction liquid becomes clear. Then you continue to drip until the liquid remains blue. This is then the titration end point. You can then count how many drops were added and deduce the hydrogen concentration that is currently present.   Hydrogen in the blood, but in the practice of measuring water in the range of 1 ppm it is very easy.

So measuring the hydrogen concentration is very important. We have to do this in research so that we know what dose the test animals or people are getting. Or to determine the hydrogen concentration in cell cultures or blood. It is crucial to measure the hydrogen. It is also important for people who buy products from different manufacturers to know how much hydrogen they are actually getting.

But: The measurement is quite difficult. The common measuring devices are designed differently; they typically measure ions. But hydrogen is a gas, very small, it is a neutral molecule and not an ion. Most devices have some type of ion-selective electrode. For example, a pH meter measures the H+ ion. It has an ion-selective membrane. Or a nitrate meter or others that always measure exactly one ion. But hydrogen is a neutral molecule and not an ion and it is not polar and that makes things difficult. There are other things like oxygen, which is also a neutral gas molecule, but we have devices to measure it. This is because oxygen has a different property because of its electrons in the outer shell. They make it paramagnetic. And we can exploit this paramagnetic property to measure oxygen. Hydrogen, on the other hand, is diamagnetic, which makes measurement difficult.

As a rule, hydrogen is measured using specific gas chromatography. But that is quite complicated because you need a specialist department for this molecule because it is so tiny. Most university departments that use gas chromatography actually cannot measure hydrogen. So that makes it difficult.

There are measuring devices that claim to be able to measure hydrogen. Most are essentially multimeters that don't actually measure hydrogen, but instead convert a voltage potential that they measure into a probable hydrogen concentration. But these devices are not specific for hydrogen, they are also sensitive to pH changes and can therefore often measure false results. They cannot be calibrated because there is no current standard for it.

The measuring devices that are actually used in research, for example measuring samples with a defined hydrogen concentration, have to be calibrated to a standard calibration curve. There you have these and those known values ​​and in between there is the calibration curve, which can then be used to mathematically determine a sample with an unknown concentration by comparing it with the curve.  That's the standard. This is quite complicated and too expensive for most people.

There is also another method that is very simple, but not as accurate. For example, you cannot use it to measure something on the order of 0,001 ppm, as found in blood. But there are simple redox reagents for titration that use methylene blue and a platinum component as a catalyst to cause a titration reaction. This is very simple, you simply pour the water into a 6 ml beaker, add a drop of reagent, and the hydrogen reacts with the drop and makes the methylene blue transparent. Then you keep dripping, and the more drops you add, the more hydrogen molecules are consumed. When all of them have been used up and the drop solution remains blue, you have reached the end point of the titration and can easily determine the concentration because you know how many drops you have added to the water. This is probably the easiest way currently to measure the hydrogen concentration in individual products to ensure that it is therapeutically effective.

Well, now we know the most important thing about measuring, i.e. checking the dissolved hydrogen. Then we should next find out how much of a good thing we should drink. And also: in what concentration. So for example: Is it better to drink a lower concentration more often a day, something like 0,5 to 1 ppm. And gradually get to 2-3 liters a day? Or would it be better to only drink 1 liter a day, but at a higher concentration, for example 3 ppm.

Another frequently asked question is: Okay, how much hydrogen do I need for a therapeutic effect? What concentration do I need in my ration? Well, we don't know exactly what the minimum concentration is, or which is most effective. But we can really say which concentration is appropriate. And that's based on the animal studies and even more specifically on the human studies where we used a certain concentration that was shown to be therapeutically beneficial. Normally this concentration is 1 to 1,6 ppm. Sometimes even higher to near 5 ppm. But you shouldn't just look at the concentration, you also have to think about the dose you get. Because you can drink 3 liters at 1 ppm and get a total of 3 mg of hydrogen, or you can drink a liter at 3 ppm, which also gives you 3 mg and only the amount of water is different. So you use the human studies and calculate how much water people get, what the typical concentration is and from that the amount of hydrogen, which is usually expressed in milligrams per day. There it is 0,5 to 3 milligrams. Even higher. So if you look around, 1,6 mg and 3 mg per day is about where you want to go. We note that in some cases a higher concentration is likely to be more effective. On the other hand, in other cases it brings no additional benefit. But what we already see. At least that seems to be the case based on our own and animal experiments: a higher concentration is no less effective than a lower one. This is important. Because we know that hydrogen is safe to use. We can take a higher concentration. With the good feeling that we are at least getting enough of it to make a difference. We should get enough for something to happen. So that's the situation. Because research is still in its infancy. There are currently around 40 registered clinical trials underway - something like that another 40 have been completed. Some of them only deal with inhalation in clinics, but many of them also deal with drinking hydrogen-rich water. But we really need more human studies to understand the dosing requirements. If you are supposed to get a total of 3 mg per day: should you take it in the morning or in the evening or at night? Should you take 1 mg each morning, evening and night? What is called for in this or that case? All of these are useful questions. And there are good reasons why one method or another has different effects. Because it changes the pharmacokinetics and also the pharmacodynamics. This then increases the cellular level again...

Well, this is the field of therapy. Depending on the disease, I can look in the individual studies to see which dose was successful. And I think it's important to note the statement: more hydrogen doesn't do any harm under any circumstances. Depending on the therapeutic goal, there is only a lower limit and no upper limit. Now I don’t have to be sick to get excited about drinking hydrogen water. It tastes good too, and maybe I just want to stay healthy longer. Or drinking water should help me complete a fitness program. In short: wellness and fitness people, even competitive athletes, always ask me how much they should drink and what concentrations they need. Does it help build muscle? And the most pressing question seems to be whether you might even lose weight by drinking hydrogen water. Or not? After all, plants grow faster if you water them, and the use is even being discussed among animal breeders because there is evidence that pigs and chickens gain weight more quickly. Manufacturers advertise with a wide variety of arguments and advertising statements, which is true and what is just marketing nonsense?

This is also a frequently asked question: How does hydrogen affect weight? Well, there are those who say that if you drink hydrogen water you will gain weight. Then there are those who say that they can lose weight with it. And still others finally say that my weight stays the same. So what does hydrogen water help for? Lose weight without gaining weight, or does it have no effect at all? Or does it do exactly what you want? I just do not know. We need more human studies to better understand this area. We can discuss certain numbers that are already available that show one trend or another. For example, there was a study by a larger group of authors in a journal about obesity that showed that hydrogen-rich water basically produces the hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). This serves to stimulate energy metabolism, especially through the consumption of fatty acids and the like. And when you have an increased metabolic rate, you start burning more calories. And in fact, one group of the experimental animals - I think they were mice - had a restricted calorie intake, the other group was unrestricted and was given hydrogen water to drink. And the result was that drinking hydrogen water had a similar effect to a 20 percent calorie reduction as part of a high-fat diet. Then combining hydrogen water with calorie restriction, this study showed an even greater effect and suggests that hydrogen can contribute to weight loss by activating the FGF21 hormone, increasing energy expenditure and improving metabolism. And in other studies on the effect of hydrogen on the mitochondria, there was all sorts of evidence that hydrogen water can really contribute in a meaningful way to weight loss or fat loss.

But what about the people who say they're gaining weight? In this area you also have to pay attention to some points that we have already talked about. We have already seen that hydrogen water actually stimulates the secretion of the neuroprotective stomach hormone GHRELIN, which has anti-inflammatory properties and is therefore a very useful hormone. Possibly one of the reasons why fasting is good for us is because it produces high levels of GHRELIN hormone. Because GHRELIN conveys some of the positive effects of intermittent fasting. And interestingly, hydrogen water can be said to increase GHRELIN levels. And GHRELIN is exactly the hormone that causes the feeling of hunger. So for some people, they get higher levels of GHRELIN and therefore eat more. And because they eat more, they can end up gaining weight that they didn't intend to.

In addition, GHRELIN stands for growth hormone releasing. That's exactly what it's about. It is naturally an anabolic hormone that helps build and maintain muscle mass. And it has a lot of other benefits. And maybe the hydrogen increases the growth hormone levels a bit by excreting GHRELIN levels and then you can notice more muscles. So you can help athletes in different areas gain weight by making them eat more by adding growth hormone.

And yet there is the other group that shows no effect at all on weight. Maybe because they don't need change. Or it simply has no effect, even though they wanted it to.

Everyone is different. And some people occasionally report that they just don't get a dramatic weight loss effect. In some studies it is the other way around, where they even increase.

Here is an interim question from Mr. Yasin Akgün, who would like to know how you feel about fasting. Do you recommend this at all and if so, when and for how long should you fast or take breaks from eating?

I get asked a lot about fasting. I was talking about how hydrogen water increases the release of GHRELIN in the stomach and also increases the level of growth hormone, which is regulated by this signaling molecule GHRELIN. That has certain advantages. Whether I'm fasting or whether fasting itself is good in conjunction with hydrogen? Well, I probably fast between meals all the time…. Fasting is definitely a good thing. There are animal studies. We may need a few more human studies to see the real benefits of intermittent fasting. This goes hand in hand with the general reduction in calories, which is of course very helpful, especially if you are overweight or the like. You can see changes in various hormones, in insulin and IGF 1 molecules, the insulin-like growth factor 1. This can help with DNA repair. The question is: Can hydrogen increase the potential of fasting? I have no doubt about that. We see that hydrogen stimulates GHRELIN secretion in the stomach, causes FGF21 secretion and also increases other DNA repair mechanisms that also play a role in fasting.  The hydrogen appears to activate the same metabolic pathways and transcription factors as fasting. So perhaps there is an additive or contributing effect. Or the fasting effect would be so great that you would no longer see any of the hydrogen effects. We just don't know.

We only know of one study that does not show at least an additional effect of reducing calories and drinking hydrogen water.  So it's probably a good idea. The only question that remains is: When do we want to consume the hydrogen? Should we take it with meals or while fasting? What is the best? Again, we don't know. Perhaps it is best served during a meal as it helps the body metabolize. In fact, it has been shown that some of the hydrogen in glycogen is stored in the liver. And as the glycogen is burned, more hydrogen accumulates there and then disperses and stays in the body a little longer. So this could be a good method. But perhaps absorption in an empty stomach is better because then the body is fresh and uncontaminated and the hydrogen is absorbed directly into the body, without other molecules and food components that can change it in any way. Maybe that's more effective. So I don't know. But personally I probably prefer to take my hydrogen in the morning before I eat. Other times also for a meal. But I typically don't drink a lot of water with meals anyway.

But whether hydrogen water with food or when fasting: We don't yet know the most effective way.  For the effect to work, you should probably consume enough when you are fasting. According to one study, it could be a little more effective.

Akgün: And when should you eat and when should you fast?

Yes, people often ask when to eat or fast. There is a lot of conflicting research on this. I'm not a fasting expert, even though I said I fast between every meal. But I remember a slightly older article that talked about two weight loss groups. One ate about 70 percent of the calories in the morning, 20 percent at lunch and 10 percent in the evening. In the other case it was the other way around: 10% in the morning, 20% at lunchtime and 70% in the evening. In the end it turned out that both groups lost weight at the same rate. What was interesting, however, was that the group with the larger lunch primarily lost fat, whereas the other group primarily lost muscle mass. And the rationale suggested in this small human study was: Maybe growth hormone increases at bedtime, when the body is repairing itself. Then we need enzymes, which the body has to build, and amino acids for the proteins. When there are no substrates or nutrients in the blood or stomach, the body needs amino acids so badly that it breaks down muscle to create the amino acids for the proteins and enzymes it needs for its repair mechanisms. So going to bed sober might not be the best idea. And you're not that active in the morning anyway. There is also a psychological perspective for those who want to lose weight and reduce calories: In my opinion, it makes perfect sense to have a small breakfast or even skip it and leave the house quickly in the morning and just have a small lunch and then eat a good, healthy, nutritious meal in the evening. This is also a socially favorable time when you are with your family or friends and consume the majority of calories, then go to bed and then, so to speak, fast until the next meal, even though you are not starving and your body has enough substrate available to function. But we need more research on the idea of ​​intermittent fasting, how it works best and everything else surrounding it. It is an interesting topic with some transferability to hydrogen therapy.

Mr. Akgün has a very interesting additional question, which is of course to be expected with water that is fully saturated with the energy-rich gas hydrogen. But as far as I know, the question hasn't been answered yet: Is the hydrogen in water, which means an excess of electrons that can be measured as negative redox potential, perhaps even a kind of food itself? And can you therefore even forego satisfying your hunger with the usual high-calorie food?

So, because of the fasting and the hydrogen, some people also say: Hey, when I drink hydrogen water, I feel as energized as if it were something to eat. I have so much energy that I don't need to eat anymore. Well, that's a possible effect. We actually see that hydrogen has an effect on the mitochondria. It stimulates the output of energy, so there may be more ATP equivalents or other forms of energy that can be used to inhibit inflammation and something like oxidative stress. You just feel more alert and clearer in your head. That can be anything. But hydrogen by itself is not considered food. It's not actually metabolized by the body like an energy-containing nutrient, something like NAD+ to NADH or something that actually serves to make ATP within the electron transport chain. Hydrogen is not used directly, but we see that it can actually raise the potential of the mitochondrial membrane, which can increase ATP production, especially when the mitochondrion is in a critical situation for one reason or another.

It is already possible that drinking hydrogen-rich WDrinking water gives you a kind of satiety simply because it creates more mental clarity, but it could also be that this simply comes from drinking water. Because water causes the stomach to expand so that it appears full to us. And a distended stomach is one of the strongest signals of satiety. So simply drinking water can suppress the feeling of hunger.

One will probably have to be patient until science, in light of the new possibilities offered by high-energy hydrogen water, perhaps one day expands the term “food” or raises it to a higher level of abstraction. Up until now, water has been considered food, and actually the most important thing, but not as food because it has previously been viewed as calorie-free. The last word has not yet been spoken. Of course, one would like to assume that electrons released could mean something like energy transfer. On the other hand, molecular hydrogen only gives up its electrons under very adverse circumstances, namely when it encounters the particularly aggressive hydroxyl radical. Perhaps this cannot be understood as energy metabolism triggered by food. Or is it? We will not yet be able to conclusively clarify this difficult question, which goes into the fundamental and philosophical aspects of our definition of food.

Let us therefore shed light on what we already know about hydrogen water, which we absorb into our bodies through drinking, for example. How long does it actually take for it to reach the individual organs and develop its effect?

Another common question is about the pharmacokinetics of hydrogen, i.e. how long does it take for the hydrogen I take to work in my body and how long it stays there. Well, we know from some human studies that when people drink hydrogen water, it increases when they exhale. Because after drinking, the water goes into the stomach and intestines, from there via the portal vein to the liver and then into the venous blood system, to the heart into the lungs, where most of the hydrogen gas is exhaled. So there is an increase in hydrogen exhalation, which clearly shows that the hydrogen is coming through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream.

And usually, depending on the dose taken, the highest reading is reached between 5 and 15 minutes. So H2 passes through very quickly and with such a high rate of diffusion and such a small size, it can penetrate cell membranes and be present and penetrate virtually anywhere. But you can also easily get out of everything again. After maybe an hour everything is gone, depending on the amount and dosage it takes longer to get to the highest reading, but about an hour later you are back to the starting level. So if you measure the hydrogen when you exhale and have maybe 5 ppm of it in the air, and you then drink half a liter with 1,6 ppm, then it jumps in the exhaled air to a range of around 80 to 115 ppm. Then after an hour it drops back to the normal value of 4 to 5 ppm of the exhaled air. So that's the basis of the pharmacokinetics of hydrogen when drinking hydrogen-rich water.

Of course there is also inhalation, but it happens very quickly. When inhaling hydrogen gas, it depends on the percentage. Many of the studies use a percentage below 4% because at 4,6 percent it becomes flammable and if there was a spark there would be an ignition that would cause the gas to explode, which wouldn't be so good. So currently the studies are below this level and the hydrogen follows the bloodstream and travels quickly through the body, reaches the muscles and the brain etc. and reaches a concentration-dependent equilibrium. If you inhale this continuously for about half an hour: As soon as you stop, the measurement value returns to the basic level after about an hour, although this is also due to the breathing volume. Some studies even use 66% hydrogen and 33% oxygen, so the presence in the blood will probably be longer. The question is, which is better, to inhale more or less? So again, we need more human studies to find out which is better. We already know that it makes a difference if we inhale 0,1 percent for 24 hours a day, which would not be therapeutically effective at all because it would allow us to achieve the sufficient concentration at the cellular level for this. We see this at least in animal studies, and in cell cultures, that the concentration should be close to or above 1 percent, usually around 2 to 3 percent. Many studies show this, including a large one in Japan, and the Japanese authorities have now approved hydrogen inhalation as a medical procedure for patients after cardiac arrest. They use 2-3 percent hydrogen concentration, which is below the flammable limit. The point is, we know that we need a certain cellular concentration for effective hydrogen application. And the question is: Okay, you get to a therapeutic level, and it doesn't matter whether by inhaling 3% or 66% hydrogen. We then have to look at what disease it is and whether it has a dose-dependent effect, whether there is a push or pulse type of application. Is something like that needed to increase effectiveness? At present we don't know. There are only anecdotal reports about this and no scientific facts and evidence about what we should do. We are still in the research phase.

So. Since we're talking about the pharmacokinetics of hydrogen

If you return to the baseline level of hydrogen in your blood an hour after drinking, you could perhaps derive a recommendation to drink hydrogen water once an hour, right?

Well, we're talking about the pharmacokinetics of hydrogen water here, which means that the peak level of hydrogen in the blood occurs after 5 to 15 minutes and then falls back to normal within an hour. Some people conclude that it would be good to drink every hour so that the level goes up and down. Yes, maybe that really makes sense. But we don't really know because there may be other perspectives. But perhaps the level should only be raised really high once and then you wait and you don't send another signal and you wait again for a while until you stimulate the cell again with a higher concentration... because of all the metabolic processes and changes in gene expression that simply take time need. We don't know yet whether we should take it hourly, three times a day, or with or without meals, it is still unknown.

What we have discovered in animal and human studies about drinking hydrogen-rich water is its effectiveness. And the probability suggests that it is not wrong, but rather good and useful given the current situation.

Back to the absorption of hydrogen into the body after drinking: How much of it goes into the bloodstream and how much flows through the body directly as a gas, which penetrates everything and does not rely on transport through blood vessels?

We have heard of the pharmacokinetics of hydrogen by Wassertdrink that comes into the venous circulation via the portal vein: How much hydrogen do we breathe out, and how much goes through the rest of the body? Well - most of it is ultimately simply breathed out, about 95%, maybe even more. So the question is, how much really goes into the tissue or the muscles or my knee? How much molecular hydrogen goes there? This is probably only a small amount. But other secondary messenger substances also play a role, such as GHRELIN, which we have already talked about, or in the liver or effects in the kidneys, which happen so often that we have seen effects against oxidative stress or for kidney function, etc have. There are questions about dosage and why this or that works better

So now we know that we still know relatively little about how the absorption of hydrogen into the body has to be dosed. However, one topic that has been discussed for a long time, even long before the pharmacological effects of hydrogen gas in water were even known, is that of the antioxidant effects of water, which has a negative redox potential, or ORP. What exactly does this antioxidant effect of hydrogen water consist of and what makes it different from other antioxidants?

People often ask me about hydrogen as an antioxidant, because there are so many antioxidants available in our diet or through nutritional supplements. So why take hydrogen as another antioxidant?

In reality, I think this is a misleading idea. I actually don't see hydrogen as an antioxidant at all. Of course it has reducing properties by its nature because it is hydrogen gas, but it is not like a normal antioxidant no matter how it reacts. Only advertising claims come up. The 2007 NATURE MEDICINE publication stated: Hydrogen acts as a selective therapeutic antioxidant by selectively eradicating cell-damaging oxygen radicals. This of course brought a lot of media attention - everyone knows the buzzword “antioxidants”. But it is much more complex and difficult. A wonderful story that we should talk about a bit. In reality, it shouldn't be considered an antioxidant. We should really first look at the antioxidant properties of hydrogen: An antioxidant should first be able to donate its electrons to an oxidant and neutralize it. Something like vitamin C or vitamin E (tocopherol) or the polyphenolic antioxidants that donate their electron...to neutralize a free radical that causes aging processes, diseases and so many problems throughout the body where there is oxidation on the DNA, the proteins and cell membranes. So what makes the apple turn brown… i.e. causes all the oxidation processes that damage the body. So these are antioxidants. But how comparable is H2 to other antioxidants?

Let's first look at the molecules themselves: Hydrogen is very small, it is the smallest molecule of all. What is critical to bioavailability and the ability to neutralize a free radical is the molecule size and location where a free radical is produced. However, most free radicals are produced near mitochondria. There are 1 - 3 different places where hydrogen gas can get to very easily because it is so small, nothing else can get there. It can penetrate the cell membranes and also enter the mitochondria, the cell nucleus and the surrounding regions, whereas other molecules are subject to the transport mechanisms. The way I see it, hydrophilic, water-soluble molecules take a certain amount of time to cross the cell membrane. Or vitamins that are rather fat-soluble and hydrophobic: they want to remain in the cell membrane and not in the water space. So the transition is difficult for them.

So based on the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen alone, among the antioxidants, hydrogen is superior. Because it can easily get into the cells, where it can potentially catch free radicals.

But does he really catch them?

So, as the Nature Medine article put it, hydrogen is a selective antioxidant. So what does that mean?

So basically we have free radicals, the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the hydroxyl radical, which is not a free radical, but is a ROS, and these ROS are simply in us. Think about cholesterol. For a long time people thought, hello, that's bad, get rid of it if possible. But then you got into HDL and LDL and how some pairings of HDL and LDL are good and some are bad.

It was the same with ROS, the reactive oxygen radicals: some were good, some were bad. Many of these self-imposed limits are based on redox chemistry, or where electron transfer to free radicals is involved.

In fact, the vasodilation of the veins is due to a free radical called nitric oxide (NO), which many of you already know, NO, which is a free radical. It is quite stable - not as stable as other free radicals - but it is produced in a specific location and reacts with its target and brings all the benefits of NO. But if it gets too much, you get a headache. because it causes oxidative damage, reacts with superoxide radicals and forms peroxynitrite anions, which are very destructive and dangerous oxidants for you.

And when our immune system uses ROS to kill pathogens, we need these free radicals.

When we exercise we produce more free radicals to have more oxidation and higher free radical production rates. And these free radicals likely promote the real beneficial aspects of exercise.

Because these free radicals - in addition to the transcription factors for the increased production of mitochondria, i.e. energy-producing organelles in us -  So a lot of these benefits are produced by these free radicals

So, what determines whether a free radical is good or bad for us?

The main determining factor for this is the activity of this free radical.

Nitric oxide is a free radical, but, as I said, not as reactive as another radical, such as the hydroxyl radical   HO·with an unpaired electron, which is very active and very toxic and damaging to cells. The hydroxyl radicals can be produced in an active environment of other free radicals such as superoxide or by the Fenton reaction or hydrogen peroxide and other reactions. So the hydroxyl radical is really very destructive and really has no benefit whatsoever. There is no internal mechanism to detoxify it. There are free radicals such as the superoxide anion radical, for which there are mechanisms within the body to deal with them. This is called superoxide dismutase (SOD).

And then there is something like hydrogen peroxide, which is an oxidant, but there is glutathione peroxidase and catalase. But there is no such thing for the hydroxyl radical, which is highly reactive and attacks everything in its path.

Well, hydrogen gas is a very gentle and weak antioxidant. It doesn't actually respond to anything. In order for it to react, something very strong has to come along. And the only radical that is strong enough to do this is the hydroxyl radical. This is so powerful that it actually reacts with hydrogen gas. And when that happens, water is created. It's a nice story that water comes out as a byproduct.

So hydrogen gas actually cannot react with all the other free radicals that might also be useful for the body and that we therefore don't want to neutralize.

So, that could also explain why some of these extensive human clinical studies  the intensive use of antioxidants found that the excessive use of antioxidants often brought serious health-damaging results. Maybe because they neutralized too many of those beneficial reactive oxygen species molecules that we actually need. And that disrupts and dysregulates the redox balance.

Hydrogen, on the other hand, neutralizes none of these, only the hydroxyl radical and the peroxynitrite anion, as the article in the Nature Medicine Journal adds. This is also very strongly oxidizing.

So in fact, the benefits of hydrogen cannot only be attributed to the neutralization of hydroxyl radicals. There are too many explanations and reasons for it that it doesn't make sense to say that this brings all of these benefits. What we see as the real benefit of hydrogen is in the area of ​​cell modulation. It is more of a gaseous signal modulator, such as nitrogen oxide gas, hydrogen sulfide or carbon monoxide. These are well-known gaseous signal modulators. And hydrogen belongs in this world of thought. In May 2017 there was an article that showed that hydrogen increases membrane tension and ATP production in mitochondria. And how does it work? This happens through a temporary superoxide radical production in the mitochondria. And this radical and other transcription factors like the NRF 2 pathway, which gives rise to more antioxidant enzymes like glutathione and superoxide dismutase.

So that may be one of the ways hydrogen works: rather than mitochondrial hormesis, which temporarily increases free radical production, thereby imparting many of the benefits of hydrogen. So, correctly understood, when you look at why hydrogen is good, one thing is that it is a very weak antioxidant that does not neutralize everything, but only the very bad radicals that cause the most damage. But the other thing is that it may also be a pro-oxidant, releasing a small and non-toxic amount of radicals, just enough to give rise to transcription factors. So just enough superoxide radicals in the mitochondria. (…) So we've seen that it temporarily induces small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that leads to a number of benefits.

So again: Hydrogen brings advantages. Not because it's a strong antioxidant, but because it's a very, very weak antioxidant that only goes after the bad guys. And it's a weak pro-oxidant that, like exercise, increases the amount of free radicals a little bit, and that leads to all of its benefits.

The presence of dissolved hydrogen gas in water causes a low, negative redox potential, which can be measured as ORP. But, what is surprising for many people: a low negative ORP does not necessarily mean that there is a lot of hydrogen dissolved in the water. How can that be explained?

This question is quite common.

I am often asked about ORP and how it is measured.

ORP stands for oxidation reduction potential. But using this to determine amounts of hydrogen in water doesn't work well. It's not specific for it and it's not a very accurate method for hydrogen because it's not specific.

ORP actually means oxidation, so we are dealing with oxidized and reduced species

Potential means difference, it is the difference between oxidized and reduced species, a ratio value. More specifically, it is the negative logarithmic ratio between oxidized and reduced species, which is based on the well-known Nernst equation and can be calculated.

That's exactly what happens when you put something in the water. There is then a solution and the ORP measurement then produces a number. This can then be a positive or negative millivolt number. If it's a positive number, it just means that more oxidized things are dissolved than reduced ones. And if the number is negative, there are more reduced ones. If you have a negative ORP measurement, you first have to ask yourself what the cause of the negative ORP is. Is this good or bad? Because you can put all sorts of things in the water that make a negative ORP but are toxic, like dihydropurines or ethanol, or metals in different redox states, all of which give off very negative redox potentials but would be quite toxic if drunk. Just because something has a negative ORP does not in any way mean that it is good for us. So first ask the reason why a negative ORP occurs. Then you know whether it is really good or bad. And then when you realize, hey, that's good, because maybe it comes from vitamin C, or from polyphenols in a tea, or even directly from hydrogen gas, because that makes a very sizable negative ORP, then you know it's good and does not harm, but contains good molecules.

Then the question comes: Is the concentration so high that it's not a waste of time. I'll say it again, ORP has nothing to do with concentration. It is a ratio value with a negative logarithm. The greater the difference, the more negative the number. So if you measure minus 500 millivolts, you don't know anything about the concentration of the active ingredients.

Assuming we're talking about hydrogen gas, let's just say hydrogen and water. So there is H2 as a reduced form and H+ as an oxidized form. And oxygen and chlorine should also be taken into account if they are present as oxidized species. But let’s focus on water and H+.

As H+ makes the pH value, the more H+, the more acidic. And if we divide hydrogen by H+, with basic water we have very few H+ ions. Now a numerator divided by a smaller denominator results in a higher quotient. And the negative logarithm of this quotient gives a more negative number. So a high numerical value. The more basic the pH value, the more negative the ORP becomes. But this ignores the fact that the numerator, i.e. the actual hydrogen concentration, is unchanged. So theoretically, if everything goes well, you can use the Nernst equation to calculate the pH, find out the H+ concentration and then, as is well known, you can determine the hydrogen concentration from the inverse exponent. But that's not how it works. I tried it. You have completely different concentrations. And the reason for this is that the ORP meter does not react specifically to hydrogen. We are talking here about changes in concentration that are relatively small. In normal tap water only the very small amount from the atmosphere of 0,0005%, whose hydrogen also dissolves in the water. This then results in a concentration of 0  ppm. Now if you just measure the ORP of this water, you might have a negative - correct - positive ORP of say 300 mV positive ORP at 0,0000001  ppm hydrogen.

Now if you make the hydrogen concentration a million times higher, you get 0,1 ppm. Approximately 0,1 ppm. You increased the concentration a million times, and because of the logarithmic ratio, the ORP changed from +300 to -500 mV.

And now let's see what happens if we increase the concentration from 0,1 to 1,0 ppm, i.e. 10 times. You only increase it 10-fold and you hardly see any change in the ORP. It still remains at around -500 mV. We don't see any big change there at all. I have tested this so many times, try it for yourself. You can say that if you take two glasses of water with - 500 mV ORP - one has a potentially therapeutic amount of 1 ppm and the other only has 0,1 ppm that is not therapeutically effective should.

But the ORP is the same. You can actually have one at 1 ppm and the other at 0,1 ppm, which has a negative value of -800 mV. Why? Because one has a neutral pH value of 1 ppm, while the other is at pH 10 and appears to have a higher concentration.

Again: pH is also logarithmic. So if you go from pH 7 to 10, that's 10, 100, 1000 times less H+ ions. So you have a number 1000 times smaller in the denominator, while the numerators remain the same. This all accounts for the exponential changes, an exponential problem of logarithmic nature with these changes. That's why you can't use an ORP meter to show a higher concentration.

Now there are still some advantages to using an ORP measuring device. In general, fresh fruits and juices usually have a more negative ORP value. So you can say: They are fresh. It's good that the ORP is negative(er) This indicates their freshness.

But when it comes to hydrogen, you can't use this method to show which fruit has more hydrogen.

If we have, say, 1 ppm or more, you will always have a fairly negative redox potential of -400 to -500 mV or less. At -400 to -500 mV the concentration can be 0.05 ppm, but also 10 ppm. This is all possible.

But if you have -10 mV or + 100 mV, you know that there is no hydrogen dissolved in a glass of water.

If there is a negative ORP, there is also hydrogen, but you just don't know how much - I'm really sorry. If you know that the chemical species in water when there is a negative ORP value is hydrogen, you know that, but not how much. So you have to measure that and perhaps use the previously mentioned measuring drop for titration. You should remember that.

The only advantage of using an ORP meter that claims to measure hydrogen in water is that if only -50 mV or even a positive number is measured, you can save yourself the effort of measuring hydrogen because there is no usable one Salary is to be expected.

Some people believe that they don't have to laboriously measure whether hydrogen is dissolved in the water. They then show, for example, how the water comes out of a water ionizer with a milky cloudy appearance and then say that you can finally see the hydrogen. Or you hold a lighter to the spout of the device and there are small oxyhydrogen effects. Or if you look at one of these small hydrogen boosters with a PEM cell, you can see how more or less large bubbles move through the water and seem to dissolve. Then there are people who say that it depends on the size of the hydrogen bubbles that they dissolve in the water. What exactly happens when hydrogen dissolves in water? And can you see the hydrogen?

I'm often asked this about the way hydrogen dissolves in water. Because some hydrogen generators produce so much hydrogen gas in the water that it becomes milky and foggy. If you see the bubbles, is the water really so supersaturated that the gas comes out? What's happening there? Is that a good sign if you see the gas bubbles in it? Well, you can see that hydrogen is being produced. But the bubbles you see are  only the gas that is not dissolved. And that doesn't really provide any health benefits because it's not in the water.

When you see microbubbles going into the water and disappearing, there are two themes: either they get smaller and go into the water, or they combine in the water and gas out. There are only these two options. So when you see these large macrobubbles in the water, they are not dissolved in the water. You really can't deduce concentration from that. You can make water so cloudy that it looks like milk. But if you then measure it, it's not even 0,1 ppm. So just because it looks milky cloudy doesn't mean that the hydrogen is actually dissolved in the water. That just means there are a lot of bubbles. So you really have to measure your concentration. Because it's the invisible bubbles that count, not the ones you see.

It's very similar if you hold a lighter under the water outlet and you hear it pop. This proves that hydrogen gas is actually being produced. But there is a huge difference whether hydrogen is produced or dissolved in water. And the therapeutic effects only come from dissolved hydrogen. So it actually shows that there is no hydrogen dissolved in the water. There may also be dissolved hydrogen present in the water at the same time. But you just have to test it. But just a few bangs mean nothing. One could even argue that a machine that produces water without popping effects is more effective because all the hydrogen is dissolved in the water and not blown into the atmosphere.

All of this is just advertising hype. In fact, you always have to measure the concentration instead of saying, look how milky and cloudy it is and how it pops, there must be hydrogen in it. But we don't know because the dissolution of the gas takes time. In our body, for example, carbon dioxide dissolves very quickly in our blood. We have to get rid of that. We breathe it out. And it all has to happen very quickly. That's why we have the carbon anhydrase enzyme in us to get rid of it quickly. This is one of the fastest-acting enzymes in us. Without this enzyme, we would die very quickly if we couldn't get the gas in and out of the bloodstream quickly.

So back to the hydrogen gas: It has to be dissolved in the water and you can't do that by simply letting it bubble through. It takes time for the saturation equilibrium to occur.

What is the difference between microbubbles and nanobubbles?

The difference between microbubbles and nanobubbles is a common question to me. This is a very fascinating current area of ​​research. MIkrobubbles are simply bubbles in the micrometer size range...some combine to form larger bubbles, others become smaller and dissolve in the water.

The existence of bubbles at the nanoscale, on the other hand, has been discussed for a long time. Even asked if they really exist.

Then perhaps a simpler question that is often asked: What type of water is best suited for producing hydrogen water: Is it mineral-rich water or the opposite, i.e. reverse osmosis water?

Yes, I get asked that a lot, and it's a pretty difficult question because it depends on how you make the hydrogen water. So whether you simply let hydrogen bubble through the water from a gas container or whether you have a machine, that all plays a role. For some devices you only use double distilled water, without any ions. Because the membrane itself acts as an electrolyte and that's how it works. In other cases, there are electrolytes in the water, and the more minerals there are, the better the conductivity and the more efficient the production of hydrogen gas. There are countless variations. And all I can say is: measure what gives the better result on your device. Ask the retailer or manufacturer after their recommendation to see if it has any influence at all. And if you just pay general attention to water quality: It's good to drink water with minerals. Its minerals are very bioavailable. It is one of the best ways to get minerals. There are very large epidemiological studies on this. They show: Water that contains minerals is healthy. Drinking water is a great way to get minerals as part of your diet. Deionized water from reverse osmosis is not toxic, although it is also acidic, because it is not a dangerous acid that could harm you because it is not buffered. The minerals are simply missing. But our body needs minerals.

So, this isn't a very important point, but one can assume that it is wise to drink mineral-rich water. I think there is sufficient evidence to suggest that this is an option that is beneficial to our lives.

I would like to have a few technical questions answered about the different electrolysis devices that can be used to produce hydrogen water: There are the new PEM cells and the multiple cells of the water ionizers that have been available on the market for a long time. Could you explain the difference?

When entering the field of electrolysis, which is used to produce hydrogen for medical purposes, there are a number of methods. Electrolysis chambers without a membrane can be used. They only have one anode and one cathode and the hydrogen is produced at the cathode. Oxygen is then produced at the anode and everything is mixed together. Then there are cells with a special membrane that prevents the anolyte water from mixing with the cathode water. This is how water ionizers work, producing alkaline and acidic water that remains separated by this membrane….

Then there is another type of membrane called SPE or proton exchange membrane (PEM). This membrane only allows protons, i.e. H+ ions, to pass through. They then come to the cathode and produce hydrogen gas.

Then there are different methods of putting these cells together. For example, according to the SPE system, the solid polymer electrolyte with a type of PEM membrane. This creates hydrogen gas at the cathode, which is then infused into drinking water. This should be done in a mixing chamber so that the hydrogen is actually dissolved in the water.

These are the two electrolysis methods to produce hydrogen gas. Which one is better? This is purely a design question. In any case, the best design using one method is better than the worst using the other.

Simply measure the hydrogen concentration. And see whether something is calcified, whether it is a special water or not: Is there a risk of wear for the electrodes and does this result in harmful metal particles getting into the water? You have to take a lot of things into account at the same time, and that's an extensive requirement for the devices that are now being developed.

Yasin Akgün: I just wanted to know. There are people who drink hydrogen water, especially if it has been heavily electrolyzed, and they feel really high right after drinking it. How can that be. Does hydrogen penetrate the brain so quickly?

 
 
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